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Summary - Class notes - Social Affective Neurosciences
1578265200 Lecture 1 - History of Emotions 1
How are emotions different from basic drives?Basic drives reflect needs of the body.
Emotions are responses to external stimuli
What are the 7 accepted components of emotions?- Response to stimulus
- Judgement of a stimulus
- Motor expression
How are emotions different from moods?Moods are longer-lasting & less specifically related to external stimuli
What are the 2 most important things aristotle said about emotions?Affect peoples judgements
Pain or pleasure with emotions.
- proper, balanced emotional experience is good or decisions
What is the Hedonist view of emotions?The only intrinsic good is pleasure.
- Absence of pain
- Take momentary pleasure wherever you can get it
What was the view of epicureans on emotion?Greatest good is modest pleasure & absence of pain and freedom from distress and worry.
- Abstincence (self-control)
- Demonstrating emotional control
What is the view of Stoics on emotions?Emotions are false judgements.
- To think clear = to overcome emotions
- Avoid emotions through: self-discipline, rely on logical thinking
What was Herbet Spencer's modern view of emotions?Highlighting the links between cognition, emotion & memory
- Different sides of the same psychical phenomena
- No cognition without emotion, no emotion without cognition
What are Freud's 3 sides of the Psyche?Id: Basic drives
Ego: Sense of self & mediator
Superego: Moral (right & wrong)
What is emotion formation according to freud & why is it wrong?Freud on emotion:
- Instincts & drives; occur when drive is blocked
- Emotions as conscious feelings of unconscious desires
- Repression of emotion can lead to mental illness
Why its wrong
- Philosophical and non-falsifiable
What did Charles Darwin show about emotions?- Physical expression of emotion in humans & animals (most objective measure)
- Emtions are innate: Emotional expressions are similar across cultures & species
- Some emotions in adults still useful tohers not (crying, gaze aversion in shame)
What are the big 6 basic facial expressions? (Ekman)1. Joy/Happiness
How was the universality of facial expressions studies (Ekman & Friesen)?Papua New Guineans: Isolated tribe
- No written language
- No photo's, outsiders, magazines or television
Let them match face in photograph & tell short emotional stories.
They were able to express alot of the same emotional of westerners --> Universality
What is Emotion-specific stereotyped response?Each instance of an emotion has:
- Same pattern of behavior
- Same pattern of bodily activation
- Facial expression
- same conscious experience?
Can emotions be just innate? (universal, same responses etc.)Emotional experience & expression varies between situation, people & cultures.
- Basic theories explain this with modification through learning & development
What is the James-Lange bodily theory of emotions?Emotions are accompanied by changes in the body.
- Changes in autonomic nervous system
James-Lange: Stimulus --> bodily response --> Feeling
(Bodily changes influence our sensory cortex)
What are problems with the James-Lange theory of emotions?Specificity
What is Damasio's somatic marker theory?Somatic markers: Bodily changes in response to a stimulus (muscle tonus, posture, facial, hormones etc.)
- Somatic markers transmitted to the brain are transformed into emotions
- Emotions & somatic markers become associated with stimulus.
- Emotions can guide adaptive behaviour
- Loop: Brain can anticipate bodily changes --> No need to wait for actual changes to happen
What is Arnold's cognitive appraisal theory?1. Stimulus: in situation
2. Appraisal: Good vs Bad
3. Emotion: Liking vs Disliking
4. Action: Approach vs Withdrawal
What is the difference between Arnol'ds cognitive Appraisal theory and & basic emotion theories? And the difference with James-Lange theory?Arnold: Stimulus --> Appraisal --> Emotion --> Action
Inconsistent with basic emotion theories: Context can alter which emotion is experienced
Inconsistent with James: Emotions are not the perception of bodily changes but depend on interpretation of situation
What is misattribution of arousal?Physiological arousal related to fear can be mislabeled as romantic arousal
(Woman in distress)
Schacter& Singers2-factor theory of the makeup of emotions?Stimulus --> Bodily response --> Appraisal --> Feeling
Emotion is based on both bodily sensation & cognitive appraisal:
- Perception of bodily
arousal= intensity of emotion
- Cognitive appraisal of situation = type of emotion
Emotions as interpretation of bodily
arousalis based on situationalcues:- Unexpected/unexplained arousalwill be explained by situationalcues
- If the
arousalcan be explained (Adrenaline shot), cues will not be used
(In line with
How did Schacter & Singer test their 2-factor theory of emotions?Epinephrine shot with informed vs uninformed group.
- Angry confederate: Not angry --> Arousal = shot
- Euphoric confederate: Not happy --> Arousal = shot
- Angry confederate: Angry --> Cue to explain arousal
- Euphoric confederate: Happy --> cue to explain arousal
What is Lazarus's stress model? (which appraisal component lead to emotion & stress?)Primairy appraisal
- Motivational relevance: Importance of situation
- Motivational congruence: Desirability of situation
Secondary appraisal (Evaluation of own recources & coping options)
- Problem-focused coping = change situation
- Emotion-focused coping = adjust to situation
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