Summary Class notes - Social Affective Neurosciences

Course
- Social Affective Neurosciences (Felix)
- Timo Stein
- 2019 - 2020
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
206 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Social Affective Neurosciences

  • 1578265200 Lecture 1 - History of Emotions 1

  • How are emotions different from basic drives?
    Basic drives reflect needs of the body.
    Emotions are responses to external stimuli
  • What are the 7 accepted components of emotions?
    - Response to stimulus
    - Judgement of a stimulus
    - Physiological 
    - Motivation
    - Motor expression
    - Feelings
  • How are emotions different from moods?
    Moods are longer-lasting & less specifically related to external stimuli
  • What are the 2 most important things aristotle said about emotions?
    Affect peoples judgements
    Pain or pleasure with emotions.

    - proper, balanced emotional experience is good or decisions
  • What is the Hedonist view of emotions?
    The only intrinsic good is pleasure.
    - Absence of pain 
    - Take momentary pleasure wherever you can get it
  • What was the view of epicureans on emotion?
    Greatest good is modest pleasure & absence of pain and freedom from distress and worry.
    - Abstincence (self-control)
    - Demonstrating emotional control
  • What is the view of Stoics on emotions?
    Emotions are false judgements.
    - To think clear = to overcome emotions
    - Avoid emotions through: self-discipline, rely on logical thinking
  • What was Herbet Spencer's modern view of emotions?
    Highlighting the links between cognition, emotion & memory
    - Different sides of the same psychical phenomena
    -  No cognition without emotion, no emotion without cognition
  • What are Freud's 3 sides of the Psyche?
    Id: Basic drives
    Ego: Sense of self & mediator
    Superego: Moral (right & wrong)
  • What is emotion formation according to freud & why is it wrong?
    Freud on emotion:
    - Instincts & drives; occur when drive is blocked
    - Emotions as conscious feelings of unconscious desires
    - Repression of emotion can lead to mental illness

    Why its wrong
    - Philosophical and non-falsifiable
    -
  • What did Charles Darwin show about emotions?
    - Physical expression of emotion in humans & animals (most objective measure)

    - Emtions are innate:  Emotional expressions are similar across cultures & species

    - Some emotions in adults still useful tohers not (crying, gaze aversion in shame)
  • What are the big 6 basic facial expressions? (Ekman)
    1. Joy/Happiness
    2. Disgust
    3. Surprise
    4. Sadness
    5. Anger
    6. Fear
  • How was the universality of facial expressions studies (Ekman & Friesen)?
    Papua New Guineans: Isolated tribe
    - No written language
    - No photo's, outsiders, magazines or television

    Let them match face in photograph & tell short emotional stories.
    They were able to express alot of the same emotional of westerners --> Universality
  • What is Emotion-specific stereotyped response?
    Each instance of an emotion has:
    - Same pattern of behavior
    - Same pattern of bodily activation
    - Facial expression
    - same conscious experience?
  • Can emotions be just innate? (universal, same responses etc.)
    Emotional experience & expression varies between situation, people & cultures.

    But:
    - Basic theories explain this with modification through learning & development
  • What is the James-Lange bodily theory of emotions?
    Emotions are accompanied by changes in the body.
    - Changes in autonomic nervous system 

    James-Lange: Stimulus --> bodily response --> Feeling

    (Bodily changes influence our sensory cortex)
  • What are problems with the James-Lange theory of emotions?
    Specificity
    Latency
  • What is Damasio's somatic marker theory?
    Somatic markers: Bodily changes in response to a stimulus (muscle tonus, posture, facial, hormones etc.)

    - Somatic markers transmitted to the brain are transformed into emotions

    - Emotions & somatic markers become associated with stimulus.

    Conclusions:
    - Emotions can guide adaptive behaviour
    - Loop: Brain can anticipate bodily changes --> No need to wait for actual changes to happen
  • What is Arnold's cognitive appraisal theory?
    1. Stimulus: in situation
    2. Appraisal: Good vs Bad
    3. Emotion: Liking vs Disliking
    4. Action: Approach vs Withdrawal
  • What is the difference between Arnol'ds cognitive Appraisal theory and & basic emotion theories? And the difference with James-Lange theory?
    Arnold: Stimulus --> Appraisal --> Emotion --> Action

    Inconsistent with basic emotion theories: Context can alter which emotion is experienced     

    Inconsistent with James: Emotions are not the perception of bodily changes but depend on interpretation of situation
  • What is misattribution of arousal?
    Physiological arousal related to fear can be mislabeled as romantic arousal

    (Woman in distress)
  • What is Schacter & Singers 2-factor theory of the makeup of emotions?
    Stimulus --> Bodily response --> Appraisal --> Feeling

    Emotion is based on both bodily sensation & cognitive appraisal:

    - Perception of bodily arousal = intensity of emotion
    - Cognitive appraisal of situation = type of emotion

    Emotions as interpretation of bodily arousal is based on situational cues:- Unexpected/unexplained arousal will be explained by situational cues
    - If the arousal can be explained (Adrenaline shot), cues will not be used



    (In line with misattribution of arousal)
  • How did Schacter & Singer test their 2-factor theory of emotions?
    Epinephrine shot with informed vs uninformed group.

    Informed
    - Angry confederate: Not angry --> Arousal = shot
    - Euphoric confederate: Not happy --> Arousal = shot

    Uninformed (Misattribution)
    - Angry confederate: Angry --> Cue to explain arousal
    - Euphoric confederate: Happy --> cue to explain arousal
  • What is Lazarus's stress model? (which appraisal component lead to emotion & stress?)
    Primairy appraisal
    - Motivational relevance: Importance of situation
    - Motivational congruence: Desirability of situation

    Secondary appraisal (Evaluation of own recources & coping options)
    - Problem-focused coping = change situation
    - Emotion-focused coping = adjust to situation
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The mPFC is involved in theory of mind. When is there more activity?
More activity when:
- Thinking about people vs objects
- Mentalizing (minds) vs non-mentalyzing (physical) judgements
- Playing game vs other person than vs  computer
The temporal poles are activated in semantic memory. For what concepts is it activated more?
Social concepts vs non-social concepts
- Involved in theory of mind
What tasks besides Sally-Anne task measure theory of mind?
RMET: Reading the mind in the eyes
Inferences about mental states based on media (stories, cartoon, interactive games etc.)
What are neural correlates of Theory of Mind?
- Temporal poles
- mPFC
- Tempero-parietal junction (TPJ)
Is empathy research trustworthy?
Nee, Tania Singer is een psychopathische liegende bitch.
Is empathy for pain fully automatic?
No, beliefs can influence simulation mechanisms.
- Fair/unfair actors receiving shocks
  

Men:
- Less activity in fronto-insular cortex when unfair player gets pain   
- Activate reward/pleasure circuits seeing unfair players im pain
What evidence for empathy of pain is supported now?
Simulation, not motor.

- Empathy for pain is mediated by simulating pain, not by simulating motor behaviour
- No mirror system activity
- Simulation without motor representations as a linking step
What is remarkable about the empathy for pain research using couples in fMRI?
It's fake as fuck --> Voodoo correlations
What is emotion according to perspective taking & how do you measure it according to perspective taking?
Definition:
-  Imagining how I would feel/react in situation
- Imagining how other person would feel/react in that situation

 Measurement: Questionaire subscales
What is emotional empathy & what are it's measures?
Definition: Having emotional reaction to someone else's situation, although it doesn't have to be the same emotion.

Measurement: Questionaire subscales