Summary Class notes - Taal in Uitvoering

Course
- Taal in Uitvoering
- Ton Dijkstra
- 2017 - 2018
- Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
- Kunstmatige Intelligentie
247 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Taal in Uitvoering

  • 1488322800 "Introductie"

  • Human beings are...
    • ...biological beings (animals) with embodiment and nonverbal communication
    • ...social beings (group members) with embeddedness and verbal communication
  • Communication is...
    • exchanging information, ideas or feelings
    • intentional or non-intentional
    • proceded via conventional or non-conventual signals
    • via linguistic of non-linguistic signals
    • and via spoken or other channels
  • Our communication is non-modular which means...
    ... that we create meaning together by using communication as a transaction
  • Functions of communication
    • exchanging information
    • influencing others
    • developing relationships
    • fulfilling obligations
    • need
    • defining who we are
  • Context can be:
    • Physical situation: location, time, light etc
    • History: shared information beforehand
    • Psychological situation: perception of self and others
    • Cultural situation: shared knowledge system e.g. based from history
  • Differences between participants imply:
    sent information is not always the same as received information, characteristics can influence transferred information
  • Encoding: ideas and feeling --> messages
    Decoding: messages --> ideas and feelings

    encoding <-> decoding
  • Medium is...
    an extension of the human body and senses, this can control our interaction.
    Language can also be a medium which extends the human senses: 
    • motor behavior: expressions are actions 
    • perception: seeing at a distance
    • emotion: what the body is feeling
    • memory: what happened some time ago
  • Humans communicate via their five sensory channels (smell, feel, see, hear, taste). The use of more channels simultaneously increases the change of successful communication.
    i
  • Noise
    Any stimulus that disrupts the sharing of meaning
    • External: distractions
    • Internal: daydreaming, being on edge
    • Semantic noise: unintended meanings
  • Feedback
    Reactions to messages indicate if the message has been received, so that communication can proceed or be adapted
  • Evolution of language:
    Humans are evolved to communicate easier (tongue stuff)
    • Discontinuous: language arose rather suddenly
    • Continuous: co-evolution of language and other human capacities

    i
  • Evolution of communication (sender-receiver model)
    i
    • Simple organisms: perceive it's environment and perform actions to change it
    • More complex organisms: choose between its actions operating on the environment. They use knowledge (acquired via perception) from earlier experiences during their planning.


    Selection actions is only relevant if the organism can make a choice between more and less important internal goals.
    Information from the environment can help to formulate priorities and goals

    Result: communication between organisms
  • Mental model
    • Getting to know the mental state of someone else by prediction or integration (communication)
    • Not only record information about content, but also make a temporal and spatial account of what's going on
    • Representation of the world in terms of aspects there are: physical, biological, psychological, sociological
    • Mental models represent new information in a detailed way, making use of space, time, causality, and intentions


    Messages are part of mental models and contain meaning that propositions cannot capture.
  • Understanding incoming messages (mental model)
    You need: lexicon (vocabulary), syntax, meaning and world knowledge. Participants may construct mental images, and add or remove information, depending on their experiences and expectations
  • Dimensions of the Language User Model
    1. Comprehension (meaning or thought) vs. production (speaking)
    2. Linguistics (structure) vs. Psychology (processes)
    3. Language vs. Thinking (conceptual systems --> makes mental model)
  • Language processing needs a number of components (LUM)
    1. Representation and rules (LTM)
    2. Processing competents and processes
    3. Working memory
    4. Cognitive control, attention, monitoring
  • Units of language processing (LUM)
    • Sublexical: letters/sounds, syllables - phonetics, phonology
    • Lexical: words - lexicology, morphology
    • Supralexical: phrases, sentences - syntax text / discourse 
  • Linguistics disciplines and representations on LTM (small to big)
    • Phonetics: raw speechs sounds
    • Phonology: abstract son categories
    • Morphology: word structure
    • Syntax: sentence structure, word order
    • Semantics: meaning
    • Pragmatics: intended meaning
  • Information streams
    • Autonomy: the process proceeds in one direction only
    • Interaction: processing can go in two directions
  • Summary Language User Model:
    i
    • Language is hierarchically organized
    • Psychology of Language: processes
    • Linguistics: representations and rules (structure)
    • Units from small to large: features, phonemes/letters, syllables, morphemes, words, phrases, sentences, texts / discourse
    • Complex linguistic activities involve multiple components of the Language User model
      (e.g., reading a book aloud; writing what the teacher says)
    • Various experimental tasks / techniques exist to investigate the processing components of the model
  • Organization of LUM
    • Globally modular: it consist of distinguishable components
    • Locally interactive: these interact with linked components
  • Three prominent theoretical approaches in linguistics and psycholinguistics
    1. Behaviorist (Skinner): Utterances (uitingen) conceived as behavioristics Stimulus-Respones chains (S->R/S->R/S->...)
    2. Information Theory (Shannon): Utterances as states with transitional probabilities (the driver stepped into his a. car b. van c. trousers)
    3. Linguistics (Chomsky): Utterances seems as hierarchical structures ([[The angry farmer] [hit [the barking dog]]])
  • Chomsky's theory
    • Languages is hierarchically organized 
    • Language consists or smaller units that are part of bigger units


    (+ their attacks)
    • Language as an abstract rule system - renewed attention to concrete properties of language: intermodel, interactions, embodiedness
    • Language as modular - the modularity assumption is being abandoned in favor of local interactivity thus effecting context
    • Language as complete utterances - incremental processing: word by word
    • Neuroscience is not relevant - shift towards neuroscience
  • Modularity - types of components in LUM
    • Transducers: change physical input into activation of nerve cells
    • Input systems: change information from the transducers into symbolic representations
    • Central system: the cognitive system processes symbolic representations and decides what has been received
  • Modularity - the modular components
    • Domain specific: processes one type of input and delivers one type of input
    • Informationally encapsulated: processing is autonomous, only affected by the input of earlier operation modules
    • Automatic: therefore fast and mandatory (following fixed paths) but with only little control
    • Coherence with neural structures: function implemented in a specific brain area, characteristic problem in case of damage and break-down, characteristic rate of development
  • Non-modular, multimodal view
    Complex brain circuits are involved in language processing. Different areas in the brain will be activated at different moments in time depending on the 'entry point'
  • Three basic assumptions on a modern view on language
    1. Humans represent outer reality in mental models
    2. Language is perceived, processed, and produced by a physical and biological being through bodily senses
    3. Language is used by a social begin in a particular context
  • Syntax as help for semantics / re-evolution of psycholinguistics
    i
    - The multidimensional semantic message must be expressed in 1D sentences --> information value (Shannon).
    - Zoom in on plausible semantics as quickly and clearly as possible.
    - Syntactic alternatives are more or less plausible because they point at more or less plausible semantics depending on the context
  • Conclusions of introduction
    i
    • Language is essentially conveying information about the body and the Self in the world
    • Language is produced, represented, and understood by the body’s senses and the brain
    • Language developed while the body and the brain developed, both phylogenetically and ontogenetically
    • Therefore, the study of language should ultimately be linked to what we know of the body and the brain
    • Language has both concrete and abstract aspects
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Alzheimer and multilingualism
Bialystok, Craik, & Freedman (2007)
In a group of patient with symptoms of dementia the onset of complaints lay about 4 years later in bilinguals than in monolinguals. 
Cognitive deterioration
According to Bialystok, multilingualism helpt to counter/delay the consequences of mental deterioration when one gets older.
Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan: Simon task:
  • Press the left button if you see a yellow square
  • Press the right button if you see a green square
Code switching or language switching
Language switching can have different functions:
  • Affective: in-group feeling, excluding others
  • Cultural or situation determined concepts
  • Problems with the retrieval of particular word
  • Creative language use and fun


At a later age if someone for example emigrated, the language deteriorate and another language can even become dominant. Languages become "dormant", but they do not complete disappear from the memory. 
Collaboration between languages
Reasons for borrowing words:
  1. Absence of a Dutch equivalent (Jazz, timing, pudding, jetlag...)
  2. Need for variation: doelpunt / goal
  3. Need for euphemism: Sorry / het spijt me
BIA+ model
Word recognition model that takes the factor representation of the language membership of a word into account.
fMRI
Van Heuven, Schriefers, Dijkstra & Hagoort:
English lexical decision by Dutch-English bilinguals. More activation for interlingual homographs than for English control words.

Detection of conflict between the two reading of the interlingual homograph. 
BOLD signal: intake of oxygen. Activation of the different readings of a homograph.
ERPs: event related potentials
Kerkhof, Dijkstra, Chwilla & De Bruijn:
Effect of HF vs. LF Dutch on English with 'angel'.
Multilingualism and the brain
Indefrey (2006) analysed 24 fMRI papers and concluded that the processing of L1 and L2 takes place in comparable brain areas. For some types of multilingual and for some tasks, there appear to be differences as well. Possible factors codetermine which differences between L1 and L2 are found in the brain.
Dijkstra, Van Jaarsveld & Ten Brinke (1998)
- English lexical decision with Dutch words
- Four frequency categories of homographs:
  1. HFE - HFD (bad)
  2. HFE - LFD (list)
  3. LFE - HFD (boom)
  4. LFE - LFD (smart)

- Purely English control words
- Non-words, derived from English words
Interlingual homographs
Interlingual homographs have the same form but a different meaning in two languages. For example 'beer' has the same orthography in English and Dutch, but 'room' has a high frequency in English and a low frequency in Dutch. These words are often recognized more slowly than other worlds that exist in only one language.