Summary Class notes - The developing brain

- The developing brain
- hylke
- 2015 - 2016
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Bewegingswetenschappen
258 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - The developing brain

  • 1448233200 Embryonic brain development

  • What is gastrulation?
    The forming of the gastrula from a blastocoel, by folding inwards, creating multiple layers
  • What are the three layers in a gastrula?
  • What structures form out of the mesoderm?
    skeletal, muscular and cardiovascular systems
  • Which structures form out of the endoderm?
    urinary, digestive and respiratory systems
  • Which structures form out of the ectoderm?
    skin (epidermis), and nervous system
  • What is neurulation?
    The inward folding of the neural plate, creating neural crest, neural tube and notochord
  • Which structure comes from the notochord?
    vertebral column
  • Which structure comes from the neural tube?
  • Which structure comes from the neural crest?
    Peripheral nervous system
  • What are a few neural tube defects?
    Spina bifida
  • What are morphogens?
    Extrinsic inductive signals which change intrinsic gene expression by inducing expression of transcription factors
  • What are teratogens?
    Agent that causes malformations in embryos
  • How is dorsoventral specification achieved?
    A network of inductive signals specify the neuron types via specific combination of transcription factors
  • What are homeotic genes?
    Similar genes(HOX genes), are transcription factors that specify segment identity to create anteroposterior specification
  • What is hensens node?
    A knot which moves anterior to posterior relasing more Retinoic acid as it grows, regulating the colinear expression of HOX genes.
  • What are neural stem cells?
    - have unlimited capacity for cell division
    - Are self renewing
  • What are the two zones where neuro genesis takes place?
    Ventricular zone and the sub ventricular zone
  • What neurons are generated in the ventricular zone?
    It are neuroepithelial stem cells which generate projection neurons and are only active during development
  • What neurons are generated in the subventricular zone?
    The germinal zone generates interneurons that migrate to the olfactory bulb and the into the hippocampus and are active throughout life.
  • How does radial migration work?
    Cells go up from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate through the previous layer
  • What are migration defects?
    Double cortex
    Cobblestone cortex
  • What are growth cones
    Connected to axon(microtubules) and are actin bundles which are very dynamic structures 
  • What are the molecular codes for axon guidance?
    Contact attraction/Contact repulsion
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How religious involvement decrease aging effects?
Help people cope with the stress and so may act as a buffer against hippocampal atrophy and cognitive decline
What are neurocorrelates of wisdom?
Prominently prefrontal cortex but may involve better balance between primitive brain regions and newer ones
What is a better model and why?
The cognitive control hypothesis, since adults show greater prefrontal cortex activity while engaging in emotion processing tasks
What are the two opposing models about emotion regulating?
Aging brain model: Positive effect is due to age-related decline in amygdala
Cognitive control: They have greater focus on regulating emotion
What are advantages of aging?
Improved emotional stability
Decreased levels of personality trait neuroticism
Increased agreeableness
Which lobes are affected the most in volume reduction?
Frontal and parietal lobes
What are a few compensation techniques in the aging brain?
Compensation by increasing frontal activity
Hemispheric asymmetry reduction
Compensation related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis, so they recruit additional brain regions that do not necessarily belong to the contralateral hemisphere
How may decreseased processing speed be explained?
White matter volume loss
How can the normal impairments be reversed?
Increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis
When does brain volume decline?
From age 50, and after 80 there is stronger decline with a total volume loss of 10%