Summary Class notes - Theories of Leadership and Management

Course
- Theories of Leadership and Management
- Corine Boon
- 2015 - 2016
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Bedrijfskunde in Deeltijd
202 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Theories of Leadership and Management

  • 1567375200 ''Week 1 Mechanisms''

  • What is Social Learning Theory/Observational Learning?
    Emphasizes learning through observation of others. We learn not only how to perform a behaviour but we learn what the consequences of that behaviour are likely to be.
  • What was Bandura's vision on Social Learning?
    His theory added a social element. He argued that people can learn new information and behaviours by watching other people. This is known as observational learning/ learning from observing a role model.
  • Necessary conditions for Observational Learning according to Bandura:
    1. Attention
    2. Retention
    3. Reproduction
    4. Motivation (reinforcement)
  • 3 forms of reinforcement and what does this include:
    1. Direct reinforcement: When an indivudual watches a model perform, imitates that behaviour and is rewarded and punished for the behaviour.
    2. Vicarous Reinforcement:The observer anticipates receiving a reward/punishment for behaving in a given way because someone else has been rewarded/punished for that behavior
    3. Self-reinforcement: Striving to meet personal standards without depending on the reaction of other. 
  • 2 types of observational learning
    1. Inhibition: learning what not to do by observing a model refraining from a particular behaviour
    2. disinhibition: learning to exhibit a behaviour that is usually disapproved by observing a model exhibiting that behaviour and not being punished. 
  • Ethical leadership article Brown & Trevino & Harrison
    Collected data from three matched sub-samples within work groups in a single organization.
    • In sample A, a randomly selected set of members within work groups rated their immediate supervisor in terms of ethical leadership and leader honesty.
    •  In sample B, a second randomly selected set of members from the same work groups rated their immediate supervisor in terms of the idealized influence-behavioral (II-B) dimension of the MLQ. 
    • In sample C, a third randomly selected set of members provided information on their supervisor’s interactional fairness and the work group outcomes predicted to be associated with ethical leadership: 
      • satisfaction with the leader
      •  leader effectiveness
      • extra effort (job dedication)
      • employees’ willingness to report problems to management.  
  • How must an ethical leader who can influence employee outcomes be viewed according to Brown, Trevino & Harrison?
     The leader must be viewed as an attractive, credible, and legitimate role model who engages in normatively appropriate behavior and makes the ethics message salient.
  • What did the study of Brown, Trevino & Harrison demonstrate according to the behaviour of employees that have an supervisor that is perceived as an ethical leader?
    They are more willing to engage in proactive helpful behavior such as reporting problems to management.
  • Where does social identity refer to?
    Refers to a person’s sense of who they are based on their group membership(s)
  • Henri Tajfel & John Turner (1979) proposed that the groups  which people belong to are.....
     an important source of pride and self-esteem. Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense of belonging to the social world.
  • Social identity leads individuals to think, feel and act on the basis of group membership.
    When social identity is salient, people act as representatives of a group rather than just as individuals.
  • What is social categorisation?
    The act of putting oneself and others into categories.
    In-group vs. Out-group
  • What is social identification?
    When you absorb the culture, norms, values of your in-group. You then notice the differences between people in your in-group versus out-group. The group becomes an important part of your social identity.
  • What is social comparison?
    To boost self esteem, one starts to think of their in-group as better than and superior to their out-group. Tajfel and Turner used the term “positive distinctiveness”.
  • 3 forms of reciprocity and their meaning:
    1. Generalized reciprocity: An exchange in which a person gives a good or service to another, does not receive anything back at that time, but has the expectation of future repayment.
    2. Balanced reciprocity: The direct exchange of goods or services that are deemed to be equivalent.
    3. Negative reciprocity: Each parties’ goal is to get as much as possible while giving as little as possible in return.  
  • Perceived organizational support
    The degree to which employees believe that their organization values their contributions, cares about their well-being, and fulfills socio-emotional needs. Contributes to the reciprocity dynamic!
  • What is the Equity theory?
    Tells us that employees feel entitled to receive rewards based on their inputs on the job.
  • Consequences of perceived organizational support
    • Organisational cynicism(-) and job satisfaction(+) 
    • Commitment(+) and turnover(-)
    • Organisational citizenship behaviors(+)
  • How does the Leader Member Exchange theory (LMX) conceive leadership?
     as a process that is focused on the interactions between leader and subordinates.” (Northouse). It focuses on the interactive relationships (instead of focusing on the leader/follower)
  • In/out-group meaning in LMX theory:
    • Ingroup: Special relationship in which more privileges, preference, and access to resources are given in exchange for going “above and beyond” routine duties
    • Outgroup: Typically do the minimum amount of work and in exchange are given low levels of access to resources and decision making 
  • Relationship fases in LMX theory and explanation
    1. Stranger phase: Roles are highly scripted and most exchanges are based on organizational rules and hierarchies. There is little trust at play. 
    2. Acquaintance phase: Leader offers subordinate improved benefits. Attempting to “feel out” the subordinate and see what they are motivated by. Trust develops. Subordinates begin to focus less on selfinterest and more on group goals. Relationship phases
    3. Partnership phase: Mutual and high quality exchanges. Favors are provided for each other under mutual trust. Subordinate focuses on group goals and moves beyond self-interest. 
  • Settoon & Bennet; Social exchange in organizations.
    • Perceived organisational support: The survey assesses employee valuations of the organization and actions it might take in situations that affect employee well-being.
    • Leader-members exchange: Multi- dimensional Measure of Leader-Member Exchange 
    •  Citizenship: Supervisors evaluated the degree to which subordinates engaged in behaviors that aided them and other coworkers but were not part of the subordinate's required duties. e.g., “The employee helps others who have heavy workloads".
    •  In-role behaviors: Supervisors were asked to evaluate the extent to which subordinates fulfilled those job responsibilities that are formal and required.
  • 5 measures of social exchange in organizations in the article of Settoon & Bennet:
    1. Perceived organizational support
    2. Leader-member exchange
    3. Organizational commitment
    4. Citizenship
    5. In-role behaviour
  • Results Bennet & Settoon:
    “Perceived organizational support was a stronger correlate of organizational commitment than leader-member exchange. Conversely, leader-member exchange was more highly related to citizenship than perceived organizational support.” 
     
    “The more that relationships or exchanges between supervisors and subordinates are based on mutual trust and loyalty, interpersonal afect, and respect for each other, the better the subordinate's performance in terms of expected and "extra" or citizenship behaviors.”
  • What is Self-efficacy according to Bandura?
     A personal judgement of “how well one can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations.” It determines whether we think we can meet the challenges necessary and how long we will persevere in the face of obstacles Affects every aspect of human striving. Shapes the beliefs a person holds regarding their power to affect situations
  • Affects choices regarding behavior. People avoid tasks where self-efficacy is low and seek out tasks where self-efficacy is high. When self-efficacy is too far below ability, people don’t learn and develop. When self-efficacy is too far above ability, people set themselves up for failures. Optimal level is a little above ability – encourages striving with opportunities for success
  • Expectancy theory of motivation
     People will work hard and strive toward goals that they think are achievable.  Build up a set of positive expectations
  • Path goal theory (House, Mitchell):
    Define the goal, clarify the path, remove obstacles and provide support
  • Psychological danger:
    Fear of admitting mistakes
    blaming others
    less likely to share different views
    'common knowledge effect'
  • How to create psychological safety
    Approach conflict as a collaborator and not an adversary Speak human to human Anticipate reactions and plan counter moves Replace blame with curiosity Ask for feedback on delivery Measure psychological safety
  • Social Identity Theory & optimal distinctiveness (Brewer)
    Social identification will be strongest for social groups or categories at that level of inclusiveness which resolves the conflict between needs for differentiation of the self and assimilation with others
    Optimal distinctiveness is independent of the evaluative implications of group membership, although, other things being equal, individuals will prefer positive group identities to negative identities.
  • Social identification will be strongest for social groups or categories at that level of inclusiveness which resolves the conflict between needs for differentiation of the self and assimilation with others. Optimal distinctiveness is independent of the evaluative implications of group membership, although, other things being equal, individuals will prefer positive group identities to negative identities. Distinctiveness of a given social identity is context-specific. It depends on the frame of reference within which possible social identities are defined at a particular time, which can range from participants in a specific social gathering to the entire human race. The optimal level of category distinctiveness or inclusiveness is a function of the relative strength (steepness) of the opposing drives for assimilation and differentiation. For any individual, the relative strength of the two needs is determined by cultural norms, individual socialization, and recent experience
  • What are optimal idenities?
    are those that satisfy the drive for inclusion within the in-group and simultaneously serve the drive for differentiation through distinctions between the in-group and out-group.
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Socialization
socialization is the process by which an individual comes to understand the values, abilities, expected behaviours and social knowledge that are essential for assuming an organization role and participating as an organization member.
There are 2 key aspects of socialization: first ensuring that employees acquire cultural knowledge; second ensure that employees bond with one another, so that they are accountable to one another for upholding those values
Organizational culture
is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behaviour for various situations (Ravasi & Schultz, 2006)
The way things get done around here´ (Deal & Kennedy, 1982)
Groupshift(aka risky shift)
Group members tend to exaggerate the initial opinion they hold
 Can be toward risk (risky shift) or toward conservatism, but is generally a more extreme version of the individuals initial positions.
Hidden profile effect
Unless groups share information in a complete and non- arbitrary fashion, the best alternative will be obscured and groups will make a less- than-optimal decisions
Common knowledge effect
Groups are much more likely to discuss information that is known by all members than to discuss information that is unique.
Groupthink
Situation in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from considering usual minority or unpopular opinion.
Cohesiveness
The degree to which group members are attracted and attached to each other and motivated to stay in the group. ( social identity fosters cohesiveness).
Triplett effect/ social facilitation
People start to preform better when they are in the presence of other people
Ringelmann effect/social loafing
If you have more people pulling on a grope, the actual effort of the people goes down.
Compliance achieving:
maintaining efficiency by achieving employees' compliance to standard rules, regulations, and procedures o Increases efficiency o Less role ambiguity, stability of employee behavior, stores knowledge, more effective decision- making processes, more control and replication