Summary Class notes - TOX20303

Course
- TOX20303
- Ivonne Rietjens
- 2016 - 2017
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
290 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - TOX20303

  • 1504562400 College 1 + 2

  • Toxicology
    Study of the adverse toxic effects of chemicals on living organisms
  • Hemlock
    State poison of the Greek
  • Belladonna (atropin)
    To create wide pupils and cause hallucination in 'witches'
  • Mycotoxicoses (of fungi)
    Reduce bloodsupply to hands and feed --> black limbs
  • St. Antony's fire
    People went to France to visit St. Antony. They went away from the source and got better (poison due to mycotoxicoses)
  • Monkshood
    Causes cardiac arrhytmias en hypertention. Used as a poison on hunting spears or enemy watersupplies
  • Percivall Pott
    Scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps
  • Orfilla
    Target organ (if its safe, the rest is also safe)
  • DDT
    Insecticide to fight malaria or thyphus --> fragile egg shells --> reproduction problems in birds
  • Agent orange (Dioxins)
    Causes malformations in unborn children
  • Softanon
    Inhibits formation of bloodvessels
  • DES
    Sleeping aid/prevention miscarriages. It causes malformations in arms and legs in children
  • Paracelsus
    The dose makes the poison
  • Major aims toxicology
    1. Toxicity, mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships
    2. Health and environmental hazards and risks
    3. Advise for authorities, industries and consumers
  • Hazard
    Potential danger
  • Risk
    Probability that adverse effects will occure
  • Risk management
    Based on risk assessment, social, economic and political aspects

    For example: BPA is safe, but in France there is a ban because of political reasons
  • Risk assessment
    Based on hazard, exposure and risk
  • Exposure assessment
    1. Route and site of exposure: oral, inhalation, dermal, injections
    2. Duration and frequency of exposure: acute, subacute, subchronic, chronic
  • Benzene
    - Acute: CNS depression
    - Chronic: Leukemia
  • Ethanol
    - Acute: CNS depression
    - Chronic: fatty liver
  • Arsenic
    - Acute: gastrointestonal damage
    - Chronic: skin/liver cancer
  • Harber's rule
    C * t = k

    C = concentration chemical
    t = time untill effect
    k = constant
  • Receptor
    Part of the molecule affected by the toxic agent
  • Primairy lesion
    Primairy molecular damage
  • Target organ
    Most sensitive organ
  • Dose-response relationship
    The rate at which injury builds up (LOAEL and NOAEL)
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Absorption: passing cell membranes via
  • Phospholipid
  • intergral proteins
  • cholesterol 
  • ion channel 
  • ligand 
Toxicokinetics (ADME) de letters staan voor...?
Absorption 
Distribution 
Metabolism 
Excretion 
Variation in toxic response (hangt af van)
  • Intra species or between individuals of one species 
  • age 
  • nutrition and life style diseases
  • gender 
  • combined exposures
Target organ =
Most sensitive organ
Primary lesion =
Primary molecular damage
Receptor =
The molecular structure affected by the toxic agent (DNA, protein like enzyme, ion channel)
Fibrosis
Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (collagen)
Necrosis
Severe damage 


  • loss membrane integrity 
  • swelling cytoplasm/mitochondria
  • cell lysis
  • no energy requirement 
  • inflammatory response 
  • non physiological stimuli 
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death 
  • membrane intact 
  • shrinking cytoplasm/nucleus
  • cell fragmentation 
  • ATP dependent
  • no inflammatory response 
  • physiological stimuli 
Cellular repair:
Apoptosis of necrosis