Summary Class notes - Wildlife

Course
- Wildlife
- Belleny
- 2017 - 2018
- Tarleton
- Ag Comm
232 Flashcards & Notes
1 Students
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Summary - Class notes - Wildlife

  • 1506981600 Exam 1

  • proportion of population in each age category
    age distribution
  • positive or negative changes in reference to biomass (weight)
    growth
  • properties of population
    growth
    genetics
    age distribution
    spatial patterns
  • size & age composition of populations & the biological & environmental processes driving them
    population dynamics
  • banned shipping of unlawfully killed game
    Lacy Act in 1900
  • when biological community or plants & animals, through ecological succession, have reached a steady state
    climax community
  • event removing organisms
    ecological disturbance
  • 3 Factors that Stabilize Population
    colonization
    migration
    interbreeding
  • 3 Main Landscape Ecologies
    corridor
    patches
    ecotones
  • heterogeneous land area composed of interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar patterns throughout an area/region
    landscape ecology
  • established area where animal occupies

    -can change within same year
    -affected by availability of resources, such as: weather, habitat, food availability, etc.
    home range
  • no 2 species can simultaneously occupy the same niche for an indefinite amount of time
    Competitive Exclusion Principle (Gause's Principle)
  • describes layers of vegetation present within a forest
    vertical structure
  • energy flow from one to another, taking energy from the sun & passing it by consumption & releasing it as heat
    trophic levels
  • geographically separated population that has some genetic interchange
    metapopulation
  • geographically separated distinct population
    subpopulation
  • all individuals of a species within a specified area at a given time
    population
  • How to measure ____.
    -genetic diversity
    -species diversity
    -ecosystem diversity
    biodiversity
  • variety & variability among organisms & their ecosystems
    biodiversity
  • measure of number of species present, along with the evenness
    species diversity
  • proportional abundance of species in the community
    species evenness
  • number of species found in the community
    species richness
  • an interacting system of biotic and abiotic components of a particular area; studied in terms of function & structure
    ecosystem
  • total individuals not defined by specific area
    abundance
  • total organic matter; measured in kg/meter2
    biomass
  • individuals per unit area
    population density
  • animal has adapted to living in trees, usually in the canopies
    arboreal
  • animal has adapted to flight & living in the air
    aerial
  • animal has adapted to digging & life underground
    fossorial
  • observation & experiment influences management
    adaptive management
  • ecology, behavior, conservation, & management of wildlife populations & communities in terrestrial ecosystems
    wildlife science
  • basis of wildlife research
    hypothesis testing
  • -conclusions centered around ___
    -can reject __
    -can fail to reject __
    null hypothesis
  • not expecting to see effect
    null hypothesis
  • expecting to see effect
    research hypothesis
  • question, hypothesis, experiment, observation, analysis, conclusion
    Scientific Method
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy
    Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  • when fish spawn in salt water, then live rest of life in fresh water
    catadronomous
  • when fish spawn in fresh water, then live rest of life in salt water
    anadromous
  • fish migrate between salt water & fresh water
    diadromous
  • method for determining age of object containing organic material
    carbon dating
  • not very well developed from birth

    -naked, blind, weak
    -require extensive parental care
    -benefit: better growing rate
    altricial
  • more prepared from birth

    -alert & well developed at hatching/birth
    precocial
  • -sense of smell
    -mammals have heightened ___
    Olfactory Senses
  • random changes in allelic frequencies

    -increases genetic diversity
    genetic drift
  • creates variation (random changes in DNA)
    mutation
  • when species of different origins develop similar traits allowing them to occupy similar niches

    -ex: echolocation in dolphins & bats
    convergent evolution
  • -when humans choose reproductive individuals based on phenotype
    -pets, livestock, crops
    -negative & positive impacts
    artificial selection
  • -"struggle for existence"
    -always will be scarcity of resources
    -scarcity leads to competition
    selective pressures
  • distant breeding that increases genetic diversity
    outbreeding
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predictable change in a plant community over time
ecological succession
occurs in areas unchanged by living organisms
primary succession
area that was previously established that underwent an ecological disturbance
secondary succession
helped protect birds, nests, eggs & feathers
Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918
benefits herbaceous plants-benefits with low CO2
C4 photosynthesis
occurs mostly in woody plants-less efficient with low CO2
C3 photosynthesis
originating in or characteristic of a distant, foreign country
exotic
causes for economical or ecological damage
invasive
reproduce & stay around area originally introduced to
naturalized organsims
resource competition across different species
interspecific competition