Summary Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (Fourth Edition)

ISBN-10 0393913481 ISBN-13 9780393913484
638 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (Fourth Edition)". The author(s) of the book is/are Michael Gazzaniga Richard B Ivry George R Mangun. The ISBN of the book is 9780393913484 or 0393913481. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (Fourth Edition)

  • 2 structure and function of the nervous system

  • how do we call the basic signaling units that transmit information throughout the nervou system?
  • how do we call nonneural cells that serve various functions in the nervous system?
    glial cells
  • what are the functions of glial cells?
    among others; 
    • providing structural support and electrical insulation to neurons
    • modulating neuronal activity 
  • how do we call the part of the neuron that the cell membrane encases?
    the soma, or cell body
  • what are the two predominant cellular components unique to neurons?
    • dendrites and axons
  • how do we call the branching extensions of the neuron that receive inputs from other neurons?
  • how do we call little knobs attached by small necks to the surface of the dendrites, where input from other neurons is received?
  • how do we call a single process that extend from the cell body of a neuron that is the output side of the neuron?
    the axon
  • how do we call a specialized structure where two neurons come into close contact so that signals can be transferred between cells?
  • how do we call it when an axon branches so it can transmit signals to more than one cell?
    axon collaterals (the branches)
  • how do we call the fatty substance wrapped around the axons?
  • how do we call gaps in the myelin?
    nodes of ranvier
  • which types of transport are there with neurons?
    • from one neuron to the next
    • from a neuron to a non-neuronal cell
  • transport within neurons is done electrically, and between neurons transport occurs chemically.
  • how do we call neurons receiving, evaluating, and transmitting information?
    neuronal signalling
  • what is the resting potential of a neuron?
    -70 mV
  • what are the functions of a cell membrane?
    • separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment
    • blocks the flow of water-soluble substances between inside and outside of the neuron
    • prevents ions and proteins from moving across the membrane
  • which kind of transmembrane proteins are on the cellmembrane?
    • ion channels
    • ion pumps
  • how do we call proteins on the cell membrane that use energy to actively transport ions across the membrane across concentration gradients?
    ion pumps
  • how do we call proteins on the cell membrane with a pore through their centers which allows certain ions to flow down their concentration gradients?
    ion channels
  • how do we call the extend to which a particular ion can cross the membrane through a given ion channel?
  • why is the membrane permeability to K+ larger than to other ions?
    because there are more K+ selective channels than other types of ion channels
  • neurons can change the permeability of their membrane, how is this called?
    being excitable
  • how can a neuron change the permeability of it's membrane?
    • ion channels are capable of changing their permeability for a particular ion
    • gated ion channels
  • gated ion channels can regulate their permeability, nongated ion channels always allow ions to pass through.
  • why do we need ion pumps?
    • to keep the neuronal potential leveled
    • without ion pumps ions would flow down their concentration gradient.
    • at some point the ions would be equally divided over inside and outside the cell.
  • how many ions does an ion pump ship?
    • per ATP molecule;
    • 2 K+ inside the cell
    • 3 NA+ outside the cell.
  • how do we call EPSP’s (and IPSP’s) from different locations happening at the same time summate to larger depolarizations?
    spatial summation
  • how is the electrical gradient created?
    • the force of the K+ concentration gradient pushes K+ out of the cell
    • this leaves the inside of the neuron slightly more negative than the outside
  • how do we call it when the forces of the concentration gradient, and the forces of the electrical gradient are equal?
    electrochemical equilibrium is reached.
  • how is electrochemical equilibrium reached?
    • the K+ concentration gradient wants to push K+ out.
    • the electrical gradient wants to drive K+ in
    • these forces at some point are equal to each other, electrochemical equilibrium is reached
  • how is an excitatory post synaptic potential created (EPSP)?
    • if an excitatory neurotransmitter binds to a, normally closed, Na+ channel, it opens
    • this causes Na+ to flow into the cell
    • this will lead to a depolarization of the membrane potential.
    • the EPSP will last a few seconds, the neurotransmitter is removed, and the channels will close again.
  • during a resting potential, which channels are open and which are closed?
    • leaky channels for K+, and Cl-, so they flow constantly out (K+), and in (Cl-) the cell. due to concentration gradient
    • Na+ channels are closed.
    • negative charge is flowing into the cell, positive charge is flowing out, or kept out the cell. creating an electrical gradient driving K+ in, and Cl- out..
  • how is an IPSP created?
    • inhibitory neurotransmitters bind to Cl- channels, causing them to open.
    • due to concentration gradient, Cl- flows into the cell, causing the intracellular fluid to become more negative.
    • this causes a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential
    • can also be don by opening K+ channels
  • how do we call passively traveling of electronic current?
    electronic conduction
  • how does an electrical current flow through the neuron?

    • The current flowing into the cell generates a potential difference at that site and neighboring sites
    • So current will flow from that site to neighboring sites
  • why does the potential difference gradually decrease with distance?
    • because the neuron can be seen as a wire, it has a certain resistance.
    • the bigger the diameter, the smaller the resistance
  • different EPSP's, or IPSP's can summate to create a higher membrane potential change, in which ways can they do this?
    • spatial summation
    • temporal summation
  • how is an action potential generated?
    • when the membrane potentials reach the axon hillock
    • and the summated EPSP's reach a certain threshold 
    • the membrane potential will rapidly depolarize further, and then hyperpolarize again. 
  • what is the threshold for initiating action potentials?
    -55 mV
  • where is the axon hillock located?
    • between the soma and the axon, at the start of the axon
  • the neuron adds up all inputs in a weighted manner, how are some inputs more important than others?
    • Inputs close to the soma have more weight
    • Inputs from stronger synapses have more weight
  • the action potential is generated at the axon hillock
  • what causes the rapid depolarization of the membrane potential when the action threshold is reached at the axon hillock?
    • by the opening of voltage gated Na+ channels. 
    • These open all by themselves when the membrane potential is -55mV or higher
    • strengthened by the Hodgkin-Huxley Cycle
    • These channels are only present at the axon hillock and in the axon
  • describe the Hodgkin-Huxley Cycle.
    • synaptic potential or receptor potential reaches axon hillock
    • membrane depolarizes
    • voltage gated Na+ channels open
    • Na+ flows into the neuron
    • membrane depolarizes
    • voltage gated Na+ channels open
    • etc.
  • if the Hodgkin-huxley cycle causes Na+ to flow into the cell more and more, how does the membrane potential come back to it's resting potential?
    • the Na+ channels open only for 1 ms, after that become inactivated 
    • while the voltage gated Na+ channels open,
    • the conductance of voltage gated K+ channels increases as well
    • so K+ starts to flow out of the cell.
  • what causes the hyperpolarization once the action potential has reached it's depolarization peak?
    • The opening of the K+ channels,
    • combined with the inactivation of the voltage gated Na+
  • how do we call it when membrane potential goes back to its resting potential and undershoots even below that, during which EPSP’s cannot generate an action potential, or only when much stronger?
    the refractory period
  • how does an action potential travel through the neuron?
    • at one site rapid depolarization is present.
    • this rapid depolarization is spread via electrotonic conduction to neighboring parts of the axon
    • There, voltage Na+ gated channels open as well, generating an action potential again
  • what is the function of the refractory period?
    • the neighboring action potential cannot spread back through electrotonic conduction, only forward
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what happens when you partake in Cognitive reappraisal: give other meaning to an emotional event?
reappraisal turns on the DorsoLateralPFC-Superior Parietal Lobe-Anterior Cingulate Cortex network and suppresses amygdalae
describe the iowa gambling task
  • four decks of cards are presented, pick a card from any deck.
  • for deck a and b, you get 10 cents, but sometime 1 euro subtraction
  • for deck c and d you get 1 euro but sometimes 50 cent subtraction
  • Simulation in insula and somatosensory cortex provides a feeling of good and bad options, vmPFC weighs markers of good and bad options
  • results; measuring skin conductance response, your vmPFC, already knows which decks are good and which are bad before you consciously know.
  • sweaty palms before you make a bad choice.
which brain part is associated with consciousness of bodily responses like detecting your heart beat or butterflies in your stomach?
anterior insula
how does the ventromedial prefrontal cortex use emotions in decision making?
  • VMPFC starts an internal simulation to evaluate the emotional outcomes of decisions
  • Reactivation of body via amygdalae or simulation in insula and somatosensory cortex
what is the result of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex?
  • no fear extinction
  • no regulation of emotions
  • unable to suppress fear
  • not able to use emotions in decision making
what are the results from damage to the amygdala?
  • Virtually no skin conductance response anymore (SCR) (sweat from hands, etc.)
  • Startle reflexes reduced
  • Learned stimulus-response (S-R) relations can no longer be triggered
which routes for conditioned learning are there, and which brain parts are involved in these routes?
  • Fast route; via thalamus to lateral amygdala
  • Slow route; Via neocortex to lateral amygdala and intercalated cellen (ITC)
describe the Cannon-Bard diencephalon theory.
  • emotional stimulus
  • thalamus --> hypothalamus, cerebral cortex
  • hypothalamus --> bodily response, cerebral cortex
  • cerebral cortex --> feeling
describe the Cannon-Bard diencephalon theory
  • Lesions above diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus in contact with body, intact emotions
  • Lesions below diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus not in contact with body, no emotions anymore
  • so the thalamus and hypothalamus are crucial for experiencing emotions
what is the critique from the Cannon-Bard diencephalon theory, on the James-Lange feedback theory?

  • autonomous nervous is not differentiated enough to account for all different amounts; EXAMPLE blushing (shame, anger, sexual arousal)
  • Hormonal feedback from the body is too slow to induce emotions
  • Hormone injections can cause different emotions