Summary Cognitive Psychology

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ISBN-10 0077122666 ISBN-13 9780077122669
1287 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Cognitive Psychology". The author(s) of the book is/are Gilhooly Dittrich Lyddy Pollick. The ISBN of the book is 9780077122669 or 0077122666. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Cognitive Psychology

  • 1 Introduction

  • how do we call principles of internal representations of concepts of the external reality?
    mental representations.
  • what is cognition?
    processed, and the processing of, information.
  • how do we call a learning device used to aid memory?
    a mnemonic
  • what is a key feature for mnemonic techniques?
    imagination.
  • which mnemonic technique is described; remembering a set of concepts by making visual representations for these objects and placing these representations along a familiar route?
    method of loci.
  • which mnemonic technique is described; when learning a new language, making an association between a new word from L2, and a word from L1, and making a visual representation of this association.
    the keyword method.
  • which mnemonic technique is described; when learning a set of numbers represent each number with a letter or sound of a letter in a logical way, like n stands for two because it has two sticks and m or w stands for 3 for the same reason. this way a word or longer sound is created from a set of numbers.
    the phonetic number system, or the major system.
  • how do we call the philosophical school which holds that all knowledge comes from experience?
    empiricism.
  • how do we call a linkage between mental contents so that activation of one content activates the linked contents.
    associations.
  • how do concepts become associated with each other?
    - if they're close together in time, so the concepts occur right after each other every time, like dinner and dessert
    - or if the concepts are close in space, chimney and roof can be associated with each other
    - if there's a relationship of similarity between the two like a cup and a mug.
  • why is using introspection criticized?
    • it can only be used with people who are trained to introspect, so no research o animals, children, and people with mental disabilities.
    • reporting what you are thinking while solving a problem can be distracting, thus introspection could be a confound.
    • even trained subjects don't have access to all cognitive processes
    • experiments by Wundt were hard to replicate in other labs.
  • how do we call the study that focusses only on observable stimuli and behavior, and abandons the attempt to look inside the mind?
    behaviorism.
  • empiricists are associationists.
  • according to behaviorists all mental phenomena cold be traced to behavioral activity.
  • according to a behaviorist what was thinking?
    slight movements of muscles in the tongue and larynx.
  • what experiment by smith showed that thinking was not a behavioral process?
    he took a poison used by amazon tribes that shuts down muscles. he reported that he was able to think while his nervous system was flat out, indicating that thinking isn't a product of muscle movement.
  • how do we call a mental representation of a spatial layout?
    a mental map.
  • how did tolman's study on mental maps show that rats learn without conditioning?
    the rats who did not get a reward in the foodbox at first did after a period of trials. these rats immediately showed less mistakes in finding the foodbox, therefor there can be concluded that the rats had a mental map for the maze before they were conditioned.
  • how do we call systematic ways to carry out cognitive tasks, like solving a problem?
    strategies.
  • how do we call the cognitive theory that compares people tackling some tasks to a computerprogram?
    the information processing approach.
  • how do we call a program which expresses and imitates a model of human thinking?
    a simulation program.
  • how is a simulation different from an artificial intelligence program?
    a simulation mimicks human strategies for solving a problem
    an artificial intelligence program seeks to solve the problem as effectively as possible.
  • what are internal representations?
    mental representations of external objects and events.
  • how do we call inner actions manipulating mental representations?
    mental operations.
  • how did skinner propose that a child learns a language by operant conditioning?
    a child says a word, and gets a positive reaction from the parents so it'll continue that word until habituation. then when it comes up with a new word, dishabituation occurs and the child learns a new word.
  • what was the critique on skinners theory that a child learns language by operant conditioning?
    • a child can never learn a complete language this way, only words
    • there's not constant reinforcement with every step a child makes towards learning a language, so it learns without conditioning
    • language is too complex and has room to improvise; people make and understand sentences they've never heard before.
  • what is critique on behaviorism?
    can't observe factors that influence behavior like emotions and stress, you can only observe stimuli and outcoming behavior
  • how do we call information processing modelling simulations that use a network of input neurons, hidden neurons, and output neurons to represent cognitive processes?
    connectionism.
  • in connectionism what does each kind of neuron represent?
    • input; stimuli
    • hidden; cognitive processes
    • output; behavior
  • in connection models what links the neurons?
    either excitatory or inhibitory links of varying strengths.
  • how do we call the learning strategy in connection models, over trials learns from previous trials, and then modifies the strength of the links between neurons?
    backwards propagation.
  • in connection models, what does the output depend on?
    the strength of the links, and the input.
  • how do we call the thick band of nerve fibres that connects the left and right hemispheres?
    the corpus callosum.
  • how do we call the brain direction of the top side?
    dorsal
  • how do we call the brain direction of the bottom side?
    ventral
  • how do we call the brain direction of the front side?
    anterior
  • how do we call the brain direction of the back side?
    posterior.
  • which four lobes are there?
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
  • a signal moves within a neuron electrical and between neurons biochemical.
  • what area is vital for speech production?
    Broca's area
  • where is broca's area located?
    in the left temporal lobe.
  • how do we call the view that specific mental functions are tied to specific areas in the brain?
    localization.
  • how do we call the study of psychological effects of brain damage and disease?
    neuropsychology.
  • how do we call the school of early localization that tried to link psychological functions to bumps in the skull taken to reflect growth of the brain in specific areas?
    phrenology.
  • what do we conclude when we see the following principle; a person with a brain injury does well on task a and bad on task b, while another person with a different brain injury does well on task b but bad on task a.
    the tasks are double dissociated.
  • which two tasks of brain imaging are there?
    • structural imaging
    • functional imaging.
  • which category of brain imaging is described; methods that show brain anatomy
    structural imaging.
  • which category of brain imaging is described; methods to detect brain activity
    functional imaging.
  • imaging methods are divided in two categories which categories are these?
    • manipulation of brain signals
    • registration of brain signals.
  • which category of brain imaging method is described; interfering with brain activity and studying he effects on behavior.
    manipulation of brain signals
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Latest added flashcards

how do we recognize the indication of word boundaries?
  • top-down influence; you know the word.
  • dominant intonation patterns; language dependent in english klemtoon on first letter
  • phonotactic constraints; rules of grouping letters in a language.
how do we call the concept that describes the language-specific sound groupings that occur in a language, which allows us to separate words in a sentence.
phonotactic constraints
what are the characteristics of pure word meaning deafness?
  • can hear, repeat, write down words
  • can't comprehend whats beaing said.
what are the characteristics of pure word deafness?
patients can't recognize speech sounds
speaking reading and writing unaffected.
which speech perception problems are there?
pure word deafness
pure word meaning deafness
describe the second route of the spoken words processing model.
  1. auditory signal
  2. auditory analysis system
  3. auditory input lexicon 
  4. semantic system
  5. speech output lexicon
  6. phoneme level
  7. speech
describe the third route of the spoken words processing model
  1. auditory signal
  2. auditory analysis system
  3. auditory input lexicon 
  4. speech output lexicon
  5. phoneme level
  6. speech
describe the first route of the spoken words processing model
  1. auditory signal
  2. auditory analysis system
  3. phoneme level
  4. speech
how do we call fast movements of the eye made when reading or scanning an image?
saccades
which type of script is described; represents phonemes or sounds in a language
alphabetic scripts.