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Summary - Colleges

  • 2 Taxonomy, morphology and development

  • What is the family name of grasses?
    Gramineae or Poaeae
  • What is the family name of legumes?
    Leguminosae or Fabaceae
  • What are examples of legumes?
    - Clover species
    - Lucerne
  • What is the basic unit of a grass
    The phytomer
  • Where does the phytomer exists of?
    - Blade
    - Ligule & auricles
    - Sheath
    - Node
    - Internode
    - Tiller bud
  • Where does the leaf exists of?
    - Blade
    - Sheath
  • What is the stacking of phytomers?
    The tiller
  • Where doest the tiller excist of?
    Stacked phytomers and at the bottom: Leaf lamina, leaf sheath, emerging tiller, developing leaf, stem apex and leaf primorida and the tiller bud
  • What is the grass plant it total?
    A collection of tillers and branches
  • Why is tillering important?
    - Tillering aids establishment
    - Tillering is essential in regeneration after cutting or grazing
  • What are the charasteristics of tillers?
    - Grow from basal phytomers on mother tiller
    - Are similar to mother tiller in size and shape
    - Produce their own roots (partly independent)
  • What are the charasteristics of axillary branches?
    - Grow from phytomers higher up in the mother tiller
    - Are generally shorter and have fewer phytomers than mother tiller
    - Have no roots (fully dependent)
  • What are stolons and rhizomes?
    - Horizontal stems (have nodes)
    - Produce roots at the nodes
    - Vegtative propagation (cloning)
  • What are stolons?
    - Above-ground (soil level)
    - Contain chlorophyll
  • What are rhizomes?
    - Below-ground
    - Lach chlorophyll
  • What types of inflorescence are there?
    - Raceme
    - Spike
    - Panicle
  • Where does a spike/panicle composed of?
  • What do spikelets contain?
    Two basal bracts; glumes
    And one or more florets
  • What are florets?
    Contains two bracts called the lemma (outer bract) and the palea (inner bract) and a flower
  • What is the basic unit of a legume?
  • What are the charasteristics of white clover?
    - Network of stolons
    - Grazing and mowing only removes leaves and flowers; apex and stolons remain unharmed
  • What are the charasteristics of red clover?
    - Erect and branching
    - Removal of shoots does not trugger bud break until next season
  • What are the charasteristics of lucerne?
    - Highest protein production of all forages
    - Basal crown gives rise to max 25 shoots to 1 m tall
    - Highly branching
  • What is plastochron?
    - Time between successive initation of leaf primordia
  • What is phyllochron?
    Time between successive appearance of leaves
  • How do you identify a tiller?
    If they are growing on the main tiller; count the phytomer they are on
    If they are growing from a phytomer on a certain tiller: first tiller then phytomer
  • How do you identify the phytomer?
    First the tiller than the phytomer on that tiller
  • What is the cumulative phytomer number?
    The number f phytomers to the base of the plan
  • How are plastochron and phyllochron expressed?
    Expressed in number of leaves/leaf primordia per time unit (leaves per day)
  • What is contained by each vegetative grass phytomer?
    An axillary bud:
    so in theory exponential branching
  • What is the theory about buds and the practice?
    In theory: exponential branching
    But in practice; most buds remain dormant, only a fraction forms a tiller
  • What are the factors controlling tillering?
    - Intensity of PAR intercepted
    - Ratio of red and far-red irradiance of the light intercepted
    - Nutrient status of the soil
    - Manipulation of plant structure (mowing, grazing)
  • What is PAR?
    - photosynthetically active radiation
  • Why are the phytomers produced very low (ground level)?
    So that grazing/mowing does not affect the plant
  • What are the advantages of tillering habits of grass?
    - Quickly colonize available space
    - Recover of damage
  • What is the difference between a tiller and an axillary branch?
    Grow higher up; are almost at the same part of the leave but: leave is an organ, tiller is composed of organs
  • What if the phytomer number is the same?
    This means that they have the same organ properties, same conditions at the start of the plant when it was small
  • What is thermal time?
    Time x temperature; you are correcting for the effect of temperature
  • How can you measure the plastochron?
    Sacrifice the plants
  • How can appearance of leaves be affected?
    By the environment
  • When is a leaf mature?
    When you see the tongetje/ligule
  • How is leaf death called?
  • Wha can a tiller bud do?
    Can produce a new stem
  • Why are the parts where the phytomers are produced usually very low?
    Because then grazing does not entirely effects the plant
  • What do buds contain?
    Contain preformed pyhtomers and so contain apicl meristems
  • What are meristem?
    Produces new organs (apex)
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Wat is spatial hetergeneity?
Assuming species have different niches, increasing the variability in local conditions increase the number of niches that can be filled and consequently the number of species that can cooccur
What is dispersal limitation?
The number of species found in a community is limited to those that can reach it.
What are the factors that datermine local species in grassland?
- regional species pool
- dispersal limitation
- pH
- fertility
- spatial hetergoneity
- temporal heterogeneity
- facilliation
- symbiosis
Why is a mixture of grass species preffered by barenbrug?
One aims at a grass cover that combines the advantageous properties of both grasses.
Wat can be breeding goals for turf grass used for sport fields?
Wear tolerance
Sod density
Leaf fineness
Seed yield
Disease resistance
Why is the herbage yield response to applied fertiliser nitrogen lower in grazed grassland than in mown grasland?
At increasing application rates of fertiliser nitrogen the grass sward becomes more susceptible for negative grazing efects like urine scoroching, tiller pulling and treading and poaching damage; on the other hand, at low application rates of fertiliser nitrogen the exrracta of the grazing callthe can stimulate  herbage growth
What are the two main functions of pre-wilting the mown forage in the process of silage making?
- To prevent leaching losses during the ensiling proces containing soluble sugars, proteisn and nutrients
- To stimulate a rapid and sufficient drop in silage pH by lactic acid bacteria wich will help to prevent the development of eg enterobacteria and clostridia
What are two developments in the breeding of lolium perenne in which they can be used on golf courses now?
- development of varieties with very fine leaves and tolerance to mowing at extremely low canopy heights
Why are the traditional varieties of lolium perenne not really used on golf courses?
Most of these variaties are too broad-leaved and to dark-green. They require a lot of nitrogen fetiliser and need to be mowed too often. 
Which of the two types of grassland species (C3 or C4) will be better digestable when grown under the same conditions?
C3 is better digestible. The kranz anatomy of C4 results in thick-walled budnle sheath cells leading to high concentrations of relatively poorly digestible cell wall material