Summary Colleges Immunologie

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Summary - Colleges Immunologie

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  • What is the definition of Immunology?
    Study on cells, tissues/organs and molecules involved in the recognition, inactivation, and removal of foreign (non-self) or dangerous materials. On population, animal, cell and molecular level.
  • What is immune surveillance?
    Recognition and removal of self (oncogenic) cells; cancer or senescent cells
  • What types of immunity are there?
    - Natural/innate
    - Specific
  • What is natural/innate immunity?
    - Invariable
    - Fast and acute
    - Non-specific and broad activity
    - Precedes and direts specific immunity
  • What is specific immunity?
    - Adaptive
    - Specific
    - Learning and maintaining memory
    - Slow
  • What is self acquired imminuty?
    Active adaptation due to; infection or vaccination
  • What is passive acquired immunity?
    Acquired by: passive vaccination (donor serum) or maternal immunity
  • What is needed bij antigen specific immunity?
    T- and B cells
  • What types of protective immunity are there?
    - Concommitant
    - Sterilizing
    - Modulating
  • What is concommitant immunity?
    (Live) pathogen remains present
  • Wat is sterilizing immunity?
    Pathogen is completely removed
  • What is modulating immunity?
    Pathogen is present but inactivated
  • What does innate immunity do?
    - Prevention of infection
    - Degradation of microbes
    - First line of defence; gaining time
    - Activation of specific immunity
    - Effector of specific immunity
    - No specific memory but 'training' 
    - Always present
  • What are the prevention barriérs?
    - Physical
    - Biochemical
    - Mechanical
    - Biological
  • What are the celltypes involved with innate immunity?
    - Phagocytes
    - Granylocytes
    - Killer cells
    - Antigen presenting cells
  • What are the proteins involved with innate immunity?
    - Lytic enzymes
    - Acute phase proteins
    - Complement and defensins
  • What are leucocytes?
    White blood cells
  • What are mononuclear cells?
    Lymphocyte and monocyte
  • Wat are granulocytes?
    - Neutrophil
    - Eusinophil
    - Basophil
  • What are the proteins involved in specific immunity?
    - Interleukines (cytokines)
    - Immunoglobulins
  • Which phases does the immune response have?
    1 - Recognition
    2 - Activtation
    3 - Effector
    4 - Dampening of the immune response
  • What types of function can T cells have?
    - Regulation
    -Effector
    - Memory
  • What types of T cells are there?
    - Helper
    - Regulator
    - Suppressor
    - Cytotoxic
    - Memory
  • What are the functions of B-cells?
    - Plasma cell: antibodies (Y)
    - Antigen presentation
    - Memory
  • What are the 'mistakes' of the immune system?
    - Tolerance/anergy: no response to pathogen
    - Immune suppression
    - Hypersensitivity: tissue damage
    - Auto-immunity: response to self
    - (Congenital or acquired) deficiency: lack of an immune component (SCID, AIDS)
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Waarom kan je beter niet vaccineren direct naar de geboorte?
Dan zijn er nog manternale antistoffen zijn kan je beter niet vaccineren want anders wordt het vaccin geneutraliseerd
Wat zijn innate surface protection mechanisms?
- Sneezing, couging vomiting
- Microflora on skin and in intestine
- pH anearrobiasis
- Lysozyme
 Secretions (tears mucus salive) containting antimicrobial peptides
Hoe wordt de huid adaptive beschermd?
- Langerhands (dendritic) cells
- Tcells
- Macrophagen
Hoe wordt de huid innaat beschermd?
- Physical barrier
- Bacterial flora
- Antibacterial substances like lysozyme, fatty acids etc
Wat gebeurt er als een b cel niet getriggerd wordt?
Het wordt een plasma cel die immunoglobulines gaat produceren
Waar zorgt afwezigheid van costimulatie voor?
Tolerantie
Waar matureren Bcellen?
In het beenmerg en ze moeten daar geselecteerd worden
Wanneer is er geen activatie van een thelpercel?
Als er niet voldoende signalen zijn dat iets gevaarlijk is wordt er geen CD28 gevormd en is er geen activatie
Wat zijn chimere kalven?
Gedeelde placenta bij tweelingkalveren, transplantatie is mogelijk door tolerantie voor mekaar
Waar wordt tolerantie er uit gewerkt?
In de thymus en het beenmerg en in de periferie kan ook