Summary companion animals korte samenvatting

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Summary - companion animals korte samenvatting

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  • Why keep pets?
    - innate tendency of humans -> source of information on safety and ´╗┐danger´╗┐ 
    - good for your health and well-being 
  • Why NOT keep pets?
    - bad for health> sad when pet diets + zoonosis
    - bad for environment -> ecology, resource use
  • Companion animal
    - a pet or other domestic animal
    - an animal that someone keeps for company and enjoyment
  • Pet
    - A domestic or tamed animals kept for companionship or pleasure and treated with affection
    - an animal kept for amusement or company
  • Domestication or taming?
    - domestication is over generations
    - taming is just 1 animal 
  • Pathways to domestication
    - commensal pathway: habituation -> partnership -> direct breeding (dogs)
    - prey pathway: game management -> herd management -> direct breeding (cows)
    - direct pathway: prey/competitor -> direct breeding (like prey pathway but quicker) (donkey)
  • Domestication
    - domus = house, so literally taking into a house
    - The progress where by a population of animals is changed at genetic level through a process of selection, in order to accentuate traits that benefit humans
  • 4 principle characteristics of domestication
    - breeding is under human control
    - provides a product/service useful to man
    - is tame
    - has been selected away from the wildtype
  • Marks of domestication
    - white spots
    - floppy ears
    - cruly tails 
    - etc
  • How to know an animal is domesticated?
    - appearance of markers of domestication
    - loss of species-specific wild-type behavioural response to humans
    - capacity to breed in any season and more often than once a year
    -attenuation of HPA-axis acitvity -> less stressful animals
  • What determines if an animal species adapts well to captivity?
    - Boldness (bold vs timid/fearful)
    • timid species take flight quicker and show more stress responses if they cant escape
    - flexibility (generalist vs specialist)
    • specialists have difficulty coping with new environments and food supply
    - ranging (resident vs migratory)
    • when environment changes, they rather leave than adapt their behaviour  
  • Correlation
    - quality of human-animal relationship has correlation with productivity of said animal
  • Dog domestication
    - still ongoing
    - no significant difference between groups of dogs but between breeds
  • Understanding pet emotions
    - you are aware of primary emotions in different species
    - secondary emotions:
    • self-conscious
    • self-conscious evaluative -> you have to feel like people around you have expectations of you (shame etc.)
    - watch out for over-interpreting emotions of companion animals -> anthropomorphism
    - people interpret behaviour differently in a different context    
  • Why keep pets?
    - substitute of inadequacy in the person's relationship with humans -> too widespread
    - consequence of modern (western) living conditions -> not backed up geographically/historically
    - beneficial effects for health and well-being -> but what about costs and link to fitness?
    - can also been seen as mutualism, commensalism and parasitism (dog is manipulating humans in taking care of them)
  • How do companion animals promote physical and mental health of humans?
    1. Biophilia 
    • the urge to affiliate with other forms of life
    • looking at nature makes you more calm
    • evolutionary -> if nature is calm, no predators around, also looking for food sources
    2. Social support 
    • reduce loneliness and isolation
    • lessen fear and reduce stress
    • socializing effect -> person with dog more appealing to other people 
  • Oxytocin-gazing relationship
    - oxytocin lowers heartrate + bp + stimulates milk release
    - relation between amount of oxytocin and gazing of dog to owner   
    - gazing up -> oxytocin up in owner and dog
    - after oxytocin adiminstration
    • female doges increased gazing a lot more than male dogs -> males are less dependent on oxytocin in terms of behaviour   
  • Cognition
    - reflexive -> unconscious implicit, automatic, low effort, rapid, perceptually driven
    - reflective -> consicous, explicit, controlled, high effort, slow, analytic
  • Self-other matching
    - the observation of another's behaviour causes the observer's behaviour to correspond
  • Nonspecifically
    - mimicry as reflexive self-other matching versus copying the being reflective
  • Related motor actions
    - motor resonance -> activation of common mechanisms for observed and executed actions 
    - social (observational) learning -> copying of goal directed behaviour 
    • emulation: copying the end goals (result)
    • imitation: copying all the actions and end goal (so sometimes unnecessary movements)   
  • Relating to perception
    - gaze following -> match own visual perception to that of others 
    • head movements (not eyes only) incl to meaningless targets
    • eye movements alone
    • excl. Meaningless targets + geometrical gaze following 
    - perspective taking -> grasp that another's perceptual knownlegde can differ from one's own 
    - therory of mind (ToM) -> grasp that another's representational mental states can differ from one's own 
  • Relating to emotions
    - contagion -> instantiation of an observed emotional state in oneself 
    - observed fear learning -> acquiring fear responses based on observed experiences of others with the stimulus
    - cognitive empathy -> understanding of another individual's emotional state
    • yawn contagion
    • contagion for pupil size
    • stronger facial mimicry    
  • secure base effect
    - if the owner is around the dog feels more relaxed
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