Summary Consumer behavior + powerpoints

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Summary - Consumer behavior + powerpoints

  • 1.1 Buying behavior

  • Buying behavior
  • By individuals for consumers:
    Buying decisions made by consumers
  • By collective for consumers:
    Buying decisions made by families
  • By individual for organization (s):
    Buying decisions made by representatives
  • By collective for organization (s):
    Buying decisions made by a buying center
  • 1.2 Consumer behavior

  • Consumer behavior:
    the behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs
  • Support activities:
    • Organization
    • Human resources
    • Technology
    • Purchasing
    • Research and development
  • Primary activities (Porters value chain):
    • Inbound logistics
    • Operations
    • Outbound logistics
    • Marketing and sales: Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers based on their needs
    • Service: customer interaction, gives back to r&d, operations and inbound logistics
  • There are various theoretical approaches to consumer behavior:
    • Economic man
    • Psycho dynamic
    • Behaviorist
    • Cognitive
    • Humanistic
  • Economic man:
    Foundation: micro-economics & statistics
    • Maximize utility
    • Perfect information  
  • Psycho-dynamic:
    Foundation: Psychology & biology
    • Instinctive forces
    • Pleasure vs. reality (super ego) principle  
  • Behaviorist:
    Foundation: Psychology
    • Stimulus response
    • Behavior explained by external events
    • All things organisms do is behavior  
  • Cognitive:
    Foundation: Psychology, sociology, philosophy
    • Stimulus-organism response
    • Individual is information processor
    • Intrapersonal cognition  
  • Humanistic:
    Foundation: Psychology, philosophy
    • Introspective, subjective reality
    • Self-actualization
    • Emotion, volition, egoism  
  • 1.3 Cognitive consumer behavioral models

  • Cognitive consumer behavioral models
  • Cognitive consumer behavioral model consists of:
    • Analytic
    • Prescriptive
  • Analytic consists of:
    • Consumer decision model
    • Theory of buyer behavior
  • Prescriptive consists of:
    • Theory of reasoned action
    • Theory of planned behavior
  • Consumer decision model (EKB):
  • The EKB model consists of the following steps:
    1. Input
    2. Information processing
    3. Decision process
    4. Decision variables
    5. Influence variables
  • Input consists of:
    Marketing stimuli
  • Information processing consists of:
    • Exposure
    • Attention
    • Comprehension/perception
    • Acceptance
    • Retention
  • Decision process consists of:
    • Need recognition 
    • Information search
    • Alternative evaluation
    • Choice/purchase
    • Outcomes; satisfaction etc.
  • Decision variables consists of:
    • Beliefs
    • Attitudes
    • Intentions  
  • Influence variables consists of:
    • Social influences
    • Individual characteristics
    • Situational influences
  • Between information processing and decision process is:
    Memory & learning
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It is often assumed that the consumer moves through five stages in arriving at a decision topurchase or reject a new product:
1. an awareness,
2. interest,
3. evaluation,
4. trial, and
5. adoption (or rejection).
 The diffusion process is concerned with how innovations spread, that is, how they are assimilated within a market. More precisely, diffusion is the process by which the acceptance of an innovation (a new product, new service, new idea or new practice) is spread by communication (mass media, salespeople or informal conversations) to members of a social system (a target market) over a period of time. This definition includes the four basic elements of the diffusion process:
1. the innovation,
2. the channels of communication,
3. the social system, and
4. time.
In measuring opinion leadership, the researcher has a choice of four basic measurement techniques:
1. the self-designating method, evaluate the extent to which they have provided others with information about a product category or specific brand or have otherwise influenced the purchase decisions of others.
2. the sociometric method, measures the person-to-person informal communication of consumers concerning products or product categories.
3. the key informant method, asked to identify those individuals in the group who are most likely to be opinion leaders.
4. the objective method, it involves placing new products or new-product information with selected individuals and then tracing the resulting web of interpersonal communication concerning the relevant product(s).
Effectiveness of opinion leaders:
·Positive and negative product information
·Information and advice
opinion seekers
Individuals who actively seek information and advice about products sometimes are called
Opinion leadership:
(or word-of-mouth communications) is the process by which one person (the opinion leader) informally influences the actions or attitudes of others, who may be opinion seekers or merely opinion recipients.
The attitude-change strategies that are available are:
1. changing the consumer’s basic motivational function,
2. associating the product with a special group, event or cause,
3. resolving two conflicting attitudes,
4. altering components of the multi-attribute model, and
5. changing consumer beliefs about competitors’ brands.
is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.
consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand constitute the affective component of an attitude.
knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.