Summary Consumer Behaviour:A European Perspective

ISBN-10 0273772724 ISBN-13 9780273772729
146 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Consumer Behaviour:A European Perspective". The author(s) of the book is/are Michael R Solomon, Gary Bamossy, Soren Askegaard, Margaret K Hogg. The ISBN of the book is 9780273772729 or 0273772724. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Consumer Behaviour:A European Perspective

  • 1 An introduction to consumer behaviour

  • Chapter 1: An introduction to consumer behaviour.


    "Europees is een te algemene indeling, de Europese bevolking is te divers, en wie zijn Europeanen, EU? hele continent?


    Aspecten van Consumer bahaviour:

    • Persoon hoort bij een categorie
    • Hangt af van mensen uit de (online) omgeving, consumption communities
    • Reference group, eigenschappen die horen bij de persoon die je bent. Je gaat je gedragen hoe de maatschappij verwacht dat iemand van jou leeftijd/opleidingsniveau/geslacht/woonplaats zich gedraagt
    • Market segmentation theories - marketing is bedoeld om een bepaald publiek te kunnen bereiken
    • Brand image
    • Bepaalde merken zijn zeer bekend, en worden vanzelfsprekend gebruikt
    • Beoordeling van de consumenten hangt af van het moment, hoe iets zich afspeelt in de maatschappij
    • Image vaak gebaseerd op land van herkomst. Mening gebaseerd op input over de hele wereld, mogelijk door het internet


    Consumers are actors on the marketplace stage

    - Role theory: Consumers are all part of al play, and have different roles

                               Consumers are part of different plays

    Constant communication, and searching to construct a unique identity by consuming. (Kan ook door juist tegendraads te zijn)


    Consumer behaviour is a process: Niet alleen het moment van geld uitgeven, but the exchange, giving and receiving.


    Consumer behaviour involves many actors: purchaser and buyer can be different persons, or an influencer's recommendations can be involved. On can buy (or make) a group of people use a certain product.


  • What is consumer behaviour?
    “The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires”
  • 1.1 Consuming in Europe? The European consumer?

  • Aspects of consumer behaviour in the marketplace
    1. Knowledge of consumer characteristics plays an extremely important role in marketing applications.
    2. Purchase decisions are heavily influenced but the opinions and behaviors of others (friends).
    3. People share certain cultural values
    4. Brands focus on specific groups of consumers
    5. Brands have clearly defined images and personalities and consumers buy them because they match their own personality and lifestyle.
    6. When a product succeeds in satisfying the consumer's specific needs it may be rewarded with brand or store loyalty.
    7. Consumers' evaluations of products are affected by their appearance, taste, texture or smell.
    8. Product's image is often influenced by its country of origin.
  • Which perspective is emphasizes in this book?
    The perspective of role theory: consumers can be choosers, communicators, identity-seekers, pleasure-seekers, victims, rebels and activists. 
  • Instead of buyer behaviour, marketers now recognize that consumer behaviour is an ongoing process. It is the exchange, in which two organizations or people give and receive something of value, which is an integral part of marketing.
  • What important aspect misses in the three stage consumption process?
    Consumer behaviour involves many different actors.
  • 1.2 Consumers' impact on marketing strategy

  • Why should managers bother consumer behaviour?
    The basic of marketing concept states that firms exist to satisfy needs. => marketers can only satisfy these needs if they understand the consumer
  • What are the four categories and their variables of market segmentation?
    1. Demographics: measure observable aspects of a population. 
      Social class, occupation, income
      Ethnic group, religion
      Stage in life
      Puchaser vs. user
    2. Geographic
      Country differences
    3. Psychographic: differences in consumers' personalities and tastes which can't be measured objectively.
      Self-concept, personality
    4. Behavioural: patterns and fashions
      Brand loyalty, extent of usage
      Usage situation
      Benefits desired
  • What is relationship marketing?
    Keep in touch with customers in regular basis and giving them reasons to maintain a bond with the company over a time. 

    Revolution: database marketing
  • 1.3 Marketing's impact on consumers

  • What is global consumer behaviour?
    People are united by the common devotion to brand-name consumer goods, film stars and rock stars.

    Relevant: cultural homogenization
  • What is U-commerce?
    Ubiquitous networks that slowly become part of us in the future.
    I.E.: wearable computers or costomized adertisments
  • 2.1 Consumer culture

  • What are the six aspects of consumer culture?
    1. Provides meaning and structure  to the way we live
    2. It can be positive and negative frame of reference
    3. More decisive for our personal and social identities than your job
    4. Consumption choises are statements about personality, values, aspirations, sympathies and antipathies and social realtions.
    5. Consumption is to be taken seriously (personal / social / economic)
    6. Our roles as consumer in consumption system
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How can operational learning be reinforced positive or negative?
Positive reinforcement: the presence of a reward (i.e., a positive stimulus), products that are used to provide enjoyable experiences
Negative reinforcement: removal of a punishment (i.e., a negative stimulus), products that are used to alleviate uncomfortable experiences
What is operational learning?
Consumer learns to perform behaviour that is rewarding (or avoid punishment) > like the pigeons who learned to dance (B.F.Skinner)
What is stimulus generalization?
Tendency of stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to evoke similar conditioned responses, i.e., a consumer’s positive associations with a product are transferred to other contexts. For example Grolsch logo on new spirit.
What is classical conditioning?
Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on it own. 

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)

Food (UCS) => salivation
Bell (CS) => salivation
Through what three ways do we form attitudes?
  1. Classical conditioning
  2. operant conditioning
  3. cognitive learning
What are the three elements of multi-attribute attitude models?
  1. Attributes: characteristics of the attitude object. For example scholarly reputation is an attribute of a university
  2. Beliefs: cognitions about the specific. For example, a student might have a belief that the University of Southern Denmark has a strong academic standing in consumer research
  3. Importance weights: reflect the relative priority of an attribute to the consumer. For example, a student might stress the school's reputation for project bases learning, while another might assign greater weight to the social environment.
What are heuristics?
A heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently.
What are the four functions of attitudes?
  1. Utilitarian function – related to the basic principles of reward and punishment (“Beer quenches your thirst”)
  2. Value expressive function – attitudes that express the consumers’ central values or self-concept
  3. Ego defensive function – formed to protect consumers from external threats or internal feelings, formed to present oneself (self presentation). For example, one way children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced in P.E. lessons is to adopt a strongly negative attitude to all sport. 
  4. Knowledge function – attitudes formed as the result of a need for order, structure or meaning.
What is a compensatory decision strategy ?
In these strategies, consumers allow a higher value of one attribute to compensate for a lesser value of another attribute. For example, if a consumer is looking at automobiles, a high value in gas mileage might compensate for a lower value in seating space. 

What are the aspects of extended problem solving?
Motivation: High risk & involvement (unfamiliar, risky, unique, expensive), central to self concept

Information search: extensive, processed actively, multiple sources
Alternative evaluation: many criteria used, significant differences between the alternatives • Compensatory decision strategy = weighted additive decision rule • Weakness of one attribute can be compensated by another

Purchase: many outlets visited, communication with personnel