Summary Contested Universalities of International Law. Islam's struggle with modernity

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Summary - Contested Universalities of International Law. Islam's struggle with modernity

  • 1 Artikel van Ebrahim Afsah

  • Why historical models of Muslim international relations share the same shortfalls as other unilateral (eenzijdig) attempts by 'universal states' to regulate inter-groups relations.
  • Modern international law can be conceptualised as a functional response to the demise (overlijden) of the normative unity of the Church in the wake (nasleep) of the Reformation and the devastation (verwoesting) of the Thirty Years war.
  • Humiliating manner in which the Muslim world has brought into the existing system of international law in the context of colonialism...
    Damage to the Muslim acceptance.
  • 1.1 Welcome and introduction

  • Three common themes:
    -Legal and social reality
    -Practical tensions
    -Popular dissatisfaction
  • Legal norms contained in dogmatic texts, be they religious or constitutional in nature, often diverge substantially from the observed social reality
    True
  • There is only one state model and the administrative capabilities of all states, that is their ability to deliver services, establish order, and carry out executive decisions, are very similar.
    False
  • States that are unable to deliver adequate services to their citizens will have to deal with the effects of popular dissatisfaction that can take many forms including violent arrests.
    True
  • Rather than looking at many different variables, individuals and groups can best be understood by focussing on a very small set of essential characteristics that determine how they think, feel and act.
    False
  • According to the instructor, essentialism should be avoided, because it is: empirical not sustainable (duurzaam); analytically not helpful; normatively not defensible.
    All the answers
  • 1.2 Presenting the region

  • Islam is known for its huge expansion from the Hispanic Peninsula right up to present day Pakistan within 130 years.
    From 750 you have the Abbasid Caliphate that begins the Golden Age of Islam. The capital was moved to Baghdad, which was founded in 762. It comes to and end in 1258 when the Mongols destroy Baghdad. The Abbasid is forced to flee to Cairo and later a rival caliphate in Cordoba. The unity was broken. The Abbasid caliphate falls to the Ottoman in 1517. The caliph now become dependent on military soldiers, often slaves.
    The Arabic language as the Lingua Franca was an ideal, but doesn't work in practice.
  • Characteristics of the Golden Age of Islam?
    -great tolerance
    -great administrative efficiency
  • Islamic political thought has been struggling with developing a realistic theory of government that takes account of the division of spiritual and political authority.
    True
  • Remember the diversities in the population
    -ethnic
    -linguistic
    -economic
    -cultural
  • Which factor contributed to the rapid (military) expansion of Muslim rule?
    Accommodation of domestic customs
  • Bonn Agreement 2001
    "Reaffirming the independence, national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Afghanistan"
  • Which country has relatively weak government tradition: Egypt - Afghanistan - Turkey
    Afghanistan
  • What are the features of the traditional Arab social contract
    Authoritarian nature; psychological attachment to the ruler
  • Which of the following statements is correct
    Despite their common religion, Muslim nations differ significantly with regard to their ethnically, languages, confessions, culture and customs and their political and economic development.
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What are the effects of rentier economies?
-relieving the state of its burden of taxation.
-allowing rulers to 'buy off' any form of political opposition.
What are rents?
Rents are those portions of income received for goods and services beyond the opportunity costs of their provision.
What makes a strong state?
Ability to influence political outcomes
Ability to extract resources (taxes) through a consolidated and effective administration.
According to Charles Tilly, the capacity to wage wars requires a well-functioning bureaucracy, which is in itself conducive to the creation of states.
True
Western-style technology and infrastructure are a clear evidence of the large scale modernisation of state and society in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States in the past few decades.
False
The reliance of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States on foreign (military) assistance provided by 'infidels'  creates a tension for the legitimacy claim of rulers in these states.
True
On which of the three notions of authority (as defined by Max Weber) do to ruling royal families in region seek to base the legitimacy of their rule?
Traditional
How did the ruling royal families of these states try to bolster their week claim to legitimacy?
By extensive use of Islam as a source of legitimacy.
Which state took over (from the British) the role of providing military protection to Saudi Arabia in the second half of the 20th century?
USA
Income from the pilgrimage remained the chief source of the Saudi state income until being replaced by oil after its discovery in the 1930s.
True