Summary D3 Reading: Wines of the World

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Summary - D3 Reading: Wines of the World

  • 1 Introduction to France

  • In the Middle ages export markets for wines from France were easily developed due to several reasons. Which are these?
    The transport overland was difficult therefore transport over sea and the major rivers developed. 
  • Paris was supplied by vineyard areas close by. Why? Give examples of regions which are still there.
    Because it was difficult to transport wine/grapes over land. Examples are vineyards planted in the regions Auxerre, Chablis, the Loire area.
  • 1.1.1 Climate

  • Climate -> 42  to 49 degrees N lattitude
    Climate Conditions vary for example
    * Northerly Atlantic Muscadet (Loire)
    * Continental Burgundy
    * Mediterranean Provence
  • What is the latitude of the grape growing regions in France? Give some region examples on marked variable conditions
    42  to 49 degrees N lattitude

    Climate Conditions vary for example
    * Northerly, Atlantic influenced Muscadet (Loire)
    * Continental Burgundy
    * Mediterranean Provence
  • 1.1.2 Vineyard Management

  • All vineyards are planted at high density with vines trained on trellises.
    Guyot system – with vertical shoot positioning VSP
    But: Bush vines -> South of France
    Note: Number of Organic grape growing increased fourfold in the decade 2007-2017
  • Related to Vineyard management. What can you tell about the planting and training of vines in France?
    • Virtually all vineyards are planted at high density with vines trained on trellises.
    • Training: cane-replacement Guyot system – with vertical shoot positioning (VSP)
    • Exception in South of France; Bush vines
    • Note: Number of Organic grape growing increased fourfold in the decade 2007-2017
  • 1.1.3 Grape varieties

  • France’s grape varieties are strongly associated with its individual wine regions.

    Top 10 varieties
    1. Merlot -> Bordeaux – IGP wines in Languedoc
    2. Ugni Blanc -> Cognac, Armagnac
    3. Grenache Noir
    4. Syrah
    5. Chardonnay
    6. Cabernet Sauvignon
    7. Cabernet Franc
    8. Carignan
    9. Pinot Noir
    10. Sauvignon Blanc
  • What are the top 2 grape varieties in France and why
    1. Merlot: plantings in Bordeaux and IGP Languedoc / 110.000ha
    2. Ugni Blanc: Cognac-Armagnac / 80.000ha
  • What are the top 10 grape varieties of France?
    France’s grape varieties are strongly associated with its individual wine regions.

    Top 10 varieties
    1. Merlot -> Bordeaux – IGP wines in Languedoc
    2. Ugni Blanc -> Cognac, Armagnac
    3. Grenache Noir
    4. Syrah
    5. Chardonnay
    6. Cabernet Sauvignon
    7. Cabernet Franc
    8. Carignan
    9. Pinot Noir
    10. Sauvignon Blanc
  • 1.2 Winemaking

  • In General:
    - Enrichment in cooler regions
    - Better Canopy management
    - Maturations in barrels (small or large)
    - Large cooperage industry
  • French winemaking provided several 'inventions', which are these?
    In General:
    • Chaptalisation in cooler regions (less due to global warming, canopy management)
    • Canopy management
    • Maturations in barrels (small or large), a long standard.
    • Large cooperage industry
    • Support of wine institutes of Bordeaux and Montpellier
  • 1.3 Wine law & Regulations

  • In which year did France and the rest of EU allow to name the grape variety and vintage on the label? Why?
    In 2009, due to the popularity and commercial success of variety wines from the New World.
  • What is the meaning of the word INAO in the French wine industry? 
    • Institut National des Appellations d' Origine. 
    • Nowadays Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité
  • INAO in France, founded in 1935, oversees which regulations and tasks and/or commitments?

    1. It oversaw the creation of AOC – Appellation d’Orgine Contrôlee, and from 2009 IGP wines. 

    • Geographically defined appellations, including detailed rules about methods of production:
      • Varieties allowed in an AOC
      • Planting density
      • Allowed training systems
      • Maximum Yields
      • Minimum alcohol levels
      • Required length of maturation of wine before release
      • Earliest date the wine can be sold
    The system is based on the idea of terroir
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Hawkes Bay, Northern Island
  • moderate maritime climate is similar to that of Bordeaux
  • typically 2,180 sunshine hours and 1,000mm of rainfall annually. 
  • These conditions, paired with gravelly, alluvial soils similar to those found in the Médoc, have led to Bordeaux-inspired, Merlot-dominant blends. 
  • Very small amounts of Cabernet Sauvignon are grown as it has struggled to ripen in cooler years but the quality of fruit in warm years, as well as improved planting materials and viticultural understanding, means producers are excited about its future potential.
  • Gimblett Gravels and Bridge Pa are the two best-known sub-regions. 
    • Their inland location means these areas have relatively warm days. However, with little moderating influence from the coast, frost can be an issue. 
    • Both sub-regions are located on alluvial terraces with gravelly soils. 
    • The stony topsoil of Gimblett Gravels in particular becomes very warm during the day and releases heat into the evening, helping Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon to ripen. 
    • The free-draining nature of these soils means that even with high annual rainfall levels, irrigation is necessary.
    • Bridge Pa has a deeper topsoil of sandy and clay loam aiding water retention and limiting the need for irrigation.
Reasons for the expressive aromas and flavours of New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc
  • The high levels of sunshine coupled with a relatively dry growing season, allowing grapes to be kept on the vine into the autumn, leads to very intensely flavoured fruit. 
  • cultured yeast at fermentation
Climate Marlborough, New Zealand
  • 2410 sunshine hours per year
  • cool with moderately warm summers and mild winters.
  • protected from much rainy weather by surrounding mountain ranges, meaning annual precipitation is around 650 mm
  • Free-draining alluvial soils mean that irrigation is important, with underground aquifers providing the main source of this water.
Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc
  • Over 70 per cent of all the plantings in Marlborough are Sauvignon Blanc.
  • The most typical and best-known style is
    • dry with
    • high acidity and
    • intensely aromatic with a mixture of herbaceous, floral and tropical fruit aromas, particularly passionfruit.
  • The high levels of sunshine coupled with a relatively dry growing season, allowing grapes to be kept on the vine into the autumn, leads to very intensely flavoured fruit. 
  • Quality levels typically range from good to very good, and prices from inexpensive to mid-priced, though there are premium examples.
  • Producers may blend grapes from the different sub-regions or vineyard sites to obtain a desired range of aromas.
  • Blending may also be necessary for high volume producers to acquire the volume of grapes necessary for their top-selling wines.
  • This style is generally produced using cool fermentation temperatures and cultured yeasts, preventing malolactic conversion and not using oak in maturation.
  • Producers are also experimenting with ambient yeasts, partial barrel fermentation and lees stirring to create more complex, highly textured examples that can be very good to outstanding in quality and premium priced.
  • Depending on where the grapes are grown, some producers are focusing on more site-specific expressions rather than blending throughout the region.
Red wine making in New Zealand
  • For red wines, mid-range fermentation temperatures, cultured yeasts and neutral vessels are used to create high-volume fresh, fruity wines.
  • Winemakers producing premium Pinot Noir and Syrah are experimenting with varying proportions of whole bunches in fermentations, which can give a herbal or floral note.
  • Cold maceration before fermentation is also commonplace, particularly with Pinot Noir, to extract more colour and aromas.
  • Extraction during the winemaking process varies depending on the grape variety and desired style.
  • Premium examples of red wines tend to be matured in French oak barriques, particularly for the full-bodied Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot based styles, whereas larger oak vessels are increasingly used for Pinot Noir.
What makes the pronounced style of New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc
  • The pronounced style of Sauvignon Blanc is typically made with low fermentation temperatures in a neutral vessel, usually stainless steel, to retain primary fruit aromas and flavours.
  • Cultured yeasts are used to help increase aromatics.
  • Malolactic conversion is avoided to preserve the high levels of acidity and to prevent any dairy notes.
  • Oak fermentation and maturation are also avoided in this case, as is any extended lees contact.
  • Some producers may have to chaptalize at the beginning of fermentation if it has been a particularly cool year or if they have harvested early.
  • Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, and SO2 may also be used to ensure freshness after bottling.
  • However, there is an increasing number of producers who are making Sauvignon Blanc with barrel fermentation, lees stirring, partial or full malolactic conversion and oak maturation. 
  • Some are also experimenting with skin contact for white grapes, leaving small percentages of production in contact with the skins for up to two months to add texture and aroma
New Zealand only produces one per cent of the world's wine in volume but is the seventh largest exporter in value and tenth in volume. Using the below headings, explain how Sauvignon Blanc wines from New Zealand have achieved success in the export market:ProductPricePeoplePlacePromotion    
The New Zealand winemaker created a unique style of Sauvignon Blanc that has been envied and copied since its introduction in the late 80. Usually produced in an unoaked dry style, typically with pronounced green fruit and tropical flavours and high acidity. The way the New Zealanders produce their wine were fundumental to delivering clean, consistent and reliable wine. The Savuignon Blanc made in NZ produce a refreshing strongly varietal unoaked dry style typically with pronouced green fruit and tropical flavours and high acidity.
New Zealand has developed   a reputation of high quality wines every one is willing to pay above average  prices.
Dairy farmes shifted to wine makers stainless steel.
Cold fermentation. Winemaking + Viticulture
Nature factors intense sunlight UV still cool climate unique character clean wine makeing.
Screw caps even for high quality
Labels natural beauty of the environment
Promotion New Zealand
New Zealand Wine growers coordinate the marketing of the country wine. Many of its markting campaign focus on bringing influenes to to the country to immerse them in the culture, landschape and wine.
High profile sporting events as America's Cup  a focus is on sommeliers.
USA, UK, AUS - share language.
Focus on natural beauty.
Appellation Marlborough promo.
Environmental - sustainable focus.
Place New Zealand
The best examples come form Marlbourough
producer example Cloudy Bay
Everywhere in the world. On trade -- house wine also high end restaurant. Main volume for supermarket. Whole range of export market.
People New Zealand 
Production costs a relatively low. Land cheep.  That makes it possible to produce at competitable prices attractive to consumers.
No oak
Machine harvest