Summary Decentrale Selectie

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Summary - Decentrale Selectie

  • 1 Head and Neck

  • Why is the posterior neck higher than the anterior neck?
    The posterior neck is higher than the anterior neck to connect cervical viscera with the posterior openings of the nasal and oral cavities. 
  • Wat is de nek? (+ superior boundary)?
    The neck extends from the head above to the shoulders and thorax below ( Fig. 8.4 ). Its superior boundary is along the inferior margins of the mandible and bone features on the posterior aspect of the skull. 
  • Wat is de inferior (onderste) boundry  van de neck?
    The inferior boundary of the neck extends from the top of the sternum, along the clavicle, and onto the adjacent acromion, a bony projection of the scapula. Posteriorly, the inferior limit of the neck is less well defined, but can be approximated by a line between the acromion and the spinous process of vertebra CVII, which is prominent and easily palpable. The inferior border of the neck encloses the base of the neck .
  • Waar zijn de vier major compartment van de neck mee omsloten?
    by an outer musculofascial collar
  • Wat zijn de vier major compartments van de nek?
    • The vertebral compartment contains the cervical vertebrae and associated postural muscles.
    • The visceral compartment contains important glands (thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus), and parts of the respiratory and digestive tracts that pass between the head and thorax.
    • The two vascular compartments, one on each side, contain the major blood vessels and the vagus nerve.
  • Welke twee structuren die geassocieerd worden met het verteringsstelsel en ademhalingsstelsel zijn te vinden in de nek?
    he larynx and pharynx.
  • Wat is de larynx?
    The larynx ( Fig. 8.6 ) is the upper part of the lower airway and is attached below to the top of the trachea and above, by a flexible membrane, to the hyoid bone, which in turn is attached to the floor of the oral cavity. A number of cartilages form a supportive framework for the larynx, which has a hollow central channel. 
  • How can the dimensiosn of this central channel (of the larynx) be adjusted?
    The dimensions of this central channel can be adjusted by soft tissue structures associated with the laryngeal wall. The most important of these are two lateral vocal folds, which project toward each other from adjacent sides of the laryngeal cavity.
  • Hoe is de bovenste openening van de larynx?
     The upper opening of the larynx ( laryngeal inlet ) is tilted posteriorly, and is continuous with the pharynx. 
  • Wat is de pharynx?
    The pharynx ( Fig. 8.6 ) is a chamber in the shape of a half-cylinder with walls formed by muscles and fascia. Above, the walls are attached to the base of the skull, and below to the margins of the esophagus. On each side, the walls are attached to the lateral margins of the nasal cavities, the oral cavity, and the larynx.
  • Which parts open into the anterior aspect of the pharynx?
    The two nasal cavities, the oral cavity, and the larynx therefore open into the anterior aspect of the pharynx. 
  • Where does the esophagus open in the pharnynx?
    and the esophagus opens inferiorly.
  • Welke gedeelde van de pharnynx is posterior to the nasal cavities?
    The part of the pharynx posterior to the nasal cavities is the nasopharynx
  • Welke gedeelte van de pharnynx is posterior aan de oral cavityen larynx?
    Those parts posterior to the oral cavity and larynx are the oropharynx and laryngopharynx , respectively.
  • Wat zijn de functies van hoofd en nek?
    - protection 
    - contains upper parts of respiratory and digestive tracts
    - communication 
    - positioning the head
    - connects the upper and lower respiratory and digestive tracts
  • Hoe beschermt het hoofd?
    The head houses and protects the brain and all the receptor systems associated with the special senses—the nasal cavities associated with smell, the orbits with vision, the ears with hearing and balance, and the oral cavity with taste.
  • Wat wordt bedoeld met the head contains upper parts of respiratory and digestive tracts?
    The head contains the upper parts of the respiratory and digestive systems—the nasal and oral cavities—which have structural features for modifying the air or food passing into each system.
  • Wat wordt bedoeld met dat het hoofd en de nek deel uitmaken van communicatie?
    The head and neck are involved in communication. Sounds produced by the larynx are modified in the pharynx and oral cavity to produce speech. In addition, the muscles of facial expression adjust the contours of the face to relay nonverbal signals.
  • Hoe functioneert de nek in positioning the head?
    The neck supports and positions the head. Importantly, it enables an individual to position sensory systems in the head relative to environmental cues without moving the entire body.
  • Hoe verbindt de nek de bovenste en onderste repiratory tracts?
    The neck contains specialized structures (pharynx and larynx) that connect the upper parts of the digestive and respiratory tracts (nasal and oral cavities) in the head, with the esophagus and trachea, which begin relatively low in the neck and pass into the thorax.
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Wat voor somatische motorneuronen bevatten de middenhersenen (mesencephalon) en in de nuclei van welke hersenzenuw liggen ze?
The midbrain has somatic motor neurons that control eye movement. These neurons reside in the nuclei for cranial nerve III (CN III) and CN IV.

De nervus oculomotorius en de nervus trochlearis.
What is the reticular formation (brainstem)?
Additionally, this portion of the brainstem contains a loosely organized interconnected collection of neurons and fibers called the reticular formation. This neuronal network has diffuse (verspreide) connections with the cortex and other brain regions and affects the level of consciousness or arousal.

Speelt rol bij het bewustzijn.
Not only are motor neurons, autonomic neurons, and sensory neurons present at each level, but for what does the caudal brainstem serve as well?
 serves as a conduit for a large volume of axons traveling from higher CNS centers to the spinal cord (descending pathways) and vice versa (ascending pathways).
Hoe ontvangt en verzend de hersenstam informatie?
 receive sensory (afferent) information, and send out motor (efferent) signals through paired nerves that are called cranial nerves
Waar bestaat de hersenstam uit?
het mesencephalon (middenhersenen), de pons en de medulla
Waar heeft de hypofyse gespecialeerde centra voor?
The hypothalamus also has specialized centers that play important roles in controlling body temperature (see p. 1200), hunger (see p. 1001 ), thirst (see pp. 845–846 ), and the cardiovascular system. It is the main control center of the ANS.
Hoe heeft de hypothalamus effect op het endocrien systeem?
1. Neuronen in de hypothalamus synthetiseren bepaalde hormonen ( onder meer ADH, oxytocine) en brengen deze via hun axonen naar de hypofyse achterkwab (pituitary gland), waar de hormonen aan het bloed worden afgegeven. 

2. Andere specifieke neuronen maken 'releasing hormones' (o.a. GR hormone) en geven dit a aan een veneuze plexus, die het naar de hypofyse voorkwab brengt (anterior pituitary). Daar stimuleren ze cellen tot het produceren en afgeven van verschillende hormonen (o.a. FSH en LH)
Hoe is de hypothalamus een CNS structuur die het meeste invloed heeft op het AZS?
It performs this function through strong, direct connections with autonomic nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord.

door verbindingen met autonome kernen.
Wat gebeurt er in patiënten met parkinson?
 Patients withParkinson disease, a severe movement disorder, gradually lose the ability to make voluntary movements; in some of these patients, it is possible to improve movement by stimulating certain areas of the subthalamus.
Wat is doet de subthalamus?
Krijgt samen met de thalamus informatie van de basale ganglia, wat van belang is voor motoriek.