Summary Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications

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ISBN-10 0273743686 ISBN-13 9780273743682
383 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications". The author(s) of the book is/are Marc Brysbaert Kathy Rastle. The ISBN of the book is 9780273743682 or 0273743686. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications

  • 1 The wider picture

  • When is a time considered prehistory?
    When there aren't any written sources from that time.
  • How do you call a civilisation before writing was invented?
    A preliterate civilisation
  • How do we call a world view with the belief that objects and nature are inhabited by spirits with human-like characteristics, which cause events to happen?
    Animism
  • Of what components did the first writings consist?
    • Pictograms and phonograms
  • How do we call a sign that represents a sound or a syllable of spoken language; forms the basis of writing systems?
    A phonogram
  • For many languages phonograms were used more and more and pictograms less. At one point the phonograms started to form an alphabet. Except for Chinese which still consists of a form of pictograms, called logographs
  • How do we call a sign representing a spoken word, which no longer has a physical resemblance to the word’s meaning?
    A logograph
  • What is the most important thing about writing?
    the external memory written records provide about the knowledge available at a certain point in time. New thinkers do not have to rediscover what was previously thought; they can simply read what their predecessors wrote.
  • How do we call a study method in which students unquestioningly memorise and recite texts that are thought to convey unchanging truths instead of thinking critically about them?
    The scholastic method
  • What did language and numbers made possible to do?
    They made it possible to represent things in the world and represent the relation between things in the world.
  • How does writing make religion and money possible?
    • Writing makes it possible to convey ideas to other people
    • writing makes it possible to have shared ideas
    • religion is based on having shared ideas.
    • money is based on a shared value of something
  • How does language and numbers develop a concept of truth?
    • Since language and numbers represent the things in the world and the relations between them,
    • truth is the representations by language and numbers that are consistent with the actual objects and relations in the real world.
  • Something is false when it is not accurately representing the actual relations and representations of objects.
  • How does writing cause the possibility of creating a civilisation with a complex social system?
    • Through writing knowledge of agriculture could be converted to different generations, this made it possible to stay in one place and establish settlements.
    • Produce more food than is needed to feed everyone, so not everyone has to constantly arrange food.
    • This allows a community in which different people fulfill different roles, where higher ranked individuals have time.
  • Where did philosophy emerge from?
    Once civilisations started the higher ranked individuals had time to come together and think about certain questions.
  • Philosophy especially flourished in greece, which different categories of questions did man think about in that time?
    • Ontology
    • epistemology
    • aesthetics
    • ethics
  • Which philosophical category belongs to this question: what makes some things beautiful and others ugly?
    Aesthetics
  • Which philosophical category belongs to this question: what is the world like?
    Ontology
  • Which philosophical category belongs to this question: what makes some deeds good and others bad?
    Ethics
  • Which philosophical category belongs to this question: how do we know what is true, how do we learn about things?
    Epistemology
  • In which way can we divide thinkers in before socrates and after socrates?
    Before socrates have no written texts, or only small pieces, (heraclitus). After socrates thinkers have written texts.
  • Describe the view of heraclitus.
    • Was thinking about whether something can be the same.
    • famous quote; No man ever steps in the same river twice.
    • the next time you step in the river there are different watermolecules hitting your leg, the sand is different from the river moving it etc etc.
    • this principle is known as panta rhei, means; everything flows.
  • How are heraclitus' views still relevant in science today?
    • In science it is often assumed that things are identical and interchangeable. This is called the invariance principles
    • in physics all electrons are identical by assumption
    • also in psychology within an experiment people in the same groups are considered the same.
  • In the painting of the school of athens how do you know which one is plato and which one is aristotle?
    • Aristotle was a student of plato, so plato is the old guy
    • but Aristotle was an empiricist and is therefor pointing to the floor, plat was a rationalist and therefor pointing towards the sky.
  • How do we call an information-conveying sign that consists of a picture resembling the person, animal or object it represents?
    A pictogram
  • How do we call the view that states that knowledge is gained through reason?
    Rationalism
  • How do we call the view that states that knowledge is gained through experience?
    Empiricism
  • Aristotle is seen as the founder of empiricism
    plato is seen as the founder of rationalism
  • What did the work of Hippocrates consist of, and how do we view him today?
    • a collection of treatises on medical conditions and treatments, the Corpus Hippocraticum
    • Hippocrates is generally considered to be the father of (modern) medicine.
  • How do we call a school of critical reflection on the universe and human functioning; started in Ancient Greece?
    Philosophy
  • What is a remarkable aspect of plato's texts, what is a downside of this?
    • they consist of dialogues of persons discussing philosophical matters. One of the participants was usually Socrates, Plato’s mentor.
    • it is never entirely clear whether Plato shared the position articulated by his characters, or used the dialogue to raise the argument for the reader.
  • What was an important part of plato's world view?
    • There are two worlds, the intelligible world and the sensible world. 
    • The intelligible world consist of eternal, never-changing ideal forms.
    • the sensible world consist of the ever- changing material reality in which the forms or ideas are imperfectly realised and which we perceive.
    • we can only perceive the sensible world, therefor we can only perceive shadows of the perfect objects of the intelligible world.
  • Why was plato sure of rationalism?
    • We can only perceive imperfect forms in the real world, like a drawn circle.
    • yet we can imagine a perfect circle and know it's properties
    • if we have never seen one, how do we have this knowledge.
  • According to Plato, how can man gain knowledge of the intelligible world?
    • The soul is what defines a person. It is immortal and made of the leftovers of the cosmos-soul. It only temporarily inhabited the human body.
    • Because human souls were part of the cosmos-soul, they had knowledge of the perfect realm. Therefore, humans could get access to the true ideas (e.g. about goodness, beauty, equality, change) by focusing on the innate knowledge brought by the immortal soul.
  • According to plato, in which three parts was the soul divided, where located, and function?
    • Reason, located in the brain. Through this part humans would get knowledge of the realm of ideal forms, the intelligible world.
    • sensation and emotions such as anger, fear, pride and courage. This part is in the heart and is mortal
    • appetite and the lower passions, such as lust, greed and desire. it was located in the liver.
  • In what three subparts did aristotle divide knowledge?
    • Productive knowledge; knowledge of how to make things and do stuff
    • practical knowledge; how people should act in different situation (ethics and such)
    • theoretical knowledge; truth about the world.
  • In which three subparts did aristotle divide theoretical knowledge?
    • Mathematics
    • natural science; biology, physics etc
    • theology; astronomy and logic etc.
  • According to aristotle, how does theoretical knowledge arise?
    theoretical knowledge consisted of a series of axioms from which the remaining knowledge was derived by means of logic
    the axioms where determined through observations, everything else though logic.
  • How do we call argument consisting
    of three propositions: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion.
    A syllogism
  • How do we call the view that you have inborn knowledge?
    Nativism
  • Describe plato's cave.
    • The shades thrown on the wall by the fire represent the shadows of the perfect forms we perceive in the real world.
    • when one returns from the journey outside the cave it is impossible to describe what you've seen because the people in the cave do not have this knowledge.
  • What is aristotle's view on objects?
    • Everything consists of matter and forms
    • Matter only has potentiality, no actuality, the matter is exchangeable.
    • The forms are not just something in our heads but are the essence of being
  • How did aristotle teach?
    He walked around in his lyceum where students could join his walk. As he walked he explained things about the world.
  • Describe the tabula rasa theory.
    The mind is like a blank slate that can be written by experiences.
  • How do we call an argument consisting of three propositions: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion. The goal of logic is to determine which syllogisms lead to valid conclusions and which not?
    A syllogism
  • When is an argument deductive and when inductive?
    • Deductive when you go from a general rule to a conclusion about a specific observation
    • inductive when you try to make a general rule based on a specific observation
  • How can we gain knowledge through reasoning according to aristotle?
    from self-evident laws (the axioms) we can deduce theoretical statements using logic: “all swans are white” + “Cygnus is a swan” = “Cygnus is white
  • What is a characteristic of the hellenistic period?
    Popular schools get a strong psychological-practical component, how should we live, ethics
  • Which visions where there in the hellenistic period?
    • Stoicism: it is best to minimize your feelings, we shouldn't live in extremes.
    • Epicureanism: happiness is the ultimate pursuit, which you achieve by living your life as balanced possible.
    • Skepticism: refrain from judgment
  • Empiricism is also known as the Peripatetic principle
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Summarize the position of psychology on the quantitative/qualitative side over the years
  • Psychology of course started of as a part of philosophy.
  • From the first moment psychology became a scientific discipline of its own, there has been the feeling that the scientific method does not provide all the information psychologists are looking fo
  • Currently, in psychology, positivism and the quantitative method are dominant
What were the criticisms about this hoax?
  • There is a thin linebetween hoax an fraud
  • This probably could have
  • happened in other disciplines as well giving similar results.. (at least that is not tested)
  • Naïve about how the academic system works: peer review is not to expose fraud or fabrications
Describe the hoax of Helen Pluckrose, James Lindsay, and Peter Boghossian.

In 2017-2018, Helen Pluckrose, James Lindsay, and Peter Boghossian write 20 fake articles
• They send these articles to journals in the field of gender studies, queer studies and critical race studies
• 7 articles are accepted for publication
• Example: "Human reactions to rape culture and queer performativity at urban dog parks in Portland, Oregon"
als a shot a postmodernism to show that you can publish anything as long as it is in line with the views of the journal while science should be objective
How was sokal's artical actually a prank?
  • When the postmodernists started writing about physics he discovered them at some point.
  • he discovered a bunch of literature writing about things he had never seen before and were straight bullshit. 
  • what he did was combine the most absurd quotes, and combine them in an article. With another goal:
  • “Would a leading North American journal of cultural studies [...] publish an article liberally salted with nonsense if (a) it sounded good and (b) it flattered the editors’ ideological preconceptions?”
  • after publication Sokal confesses: the article consists of falsities and syntactically correct sentences that mean nothing at all
  • He wanted to take a shot at postmodernism because he believed that objective facts do matter and aren't relative for different persons
  • if we deny reality from objectiveness we deny important facts from happening, e.g. Holocaust etc. 
  • he shows that postmodernism also has a big political consequence
The relativistic view of hermeneutics created a lot of friction with the positivistic view of the natural sciences, this resulted in the science wars. How did alan sokal contributed to this war?
  • Sokal writes in an article that physics itself shows that there is no objective reality
  • Writes about quantum mechanics, theory of relativity and quantum gravity
  • Uses quantum gravity to show that everything is relative and context dependent
  • “[Q]uantum gravity informs us that space and time themselves are contextual, their meaning defined only relative to the mode of observation”
  • his political point was; We must have a liberating postmodern science, independent of objective truth What used to be only the domain of humanities now crosses the border and enters the natural sciences
Describe the views of modernism vs postmodernism
  • Rules and methods vs no privileged methods
  • External reality vs socially constructed reality
  • Moving towards truth vs different possible stories to tell
  • Positivism vs relativism
What is modernism?
The view on science that precedes postmodernism; so the positivistic, rationalistic rule based view of science.
What is postmodernism?
  • This was a counter movement against the positivistic view on science.
  • Logical positivism and later (nuanced/sophisticated) falsificationism preserve the rationality and objectivity of science
  • Scientific psychology also rests on such ideas
  • Postmodernism rejects assumptions and principles in modernity: among other things, trust in science and technology and goes with social constructivism
Why does social constructivism come with responsibility?
  • Constructivism comes with a responsibility; We can't hide behind “revealing the truth”; as researcher you contribute to what is true
  • What questions you are asking, and which categories do you consider relevant already influences the way things are looked upon. Being researched influences society 
How is the bystander effect an example of psychology transforming reality instead of passively describing it, and what are the consequences of that?
  • The bystander effect is now a real famous and well known concept
  • due to people being aware of this it happens much less
  • so the knowledge about this concept actually changes the concept.
  • the question is now do we get closer to truth with more research or do we construct it by doing research
  • if this is the case, theories should not be judged on truth but on the ability to generate new openings for action
  • you would want to transform social life in such a way that the consequences are desirable