Summary Ethics

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Summary - Ethics

  • 1 The Right to Life

  • Sanctity of Life
    life is sacred since it is god-given
  • Pope Paul VI  (abortion)
    All human life is sacred
  • Genesis 1:27
    God created man in his own image
  • Luke 10:27
    Love your neighbour as yourself
  • Abortion
    deliberate ending/ termination of pregancy, usually before foetus is 24 weeks old
  • Jeremiah 1:5
    Before I formed you in the womb I knew you
  • Isaiah 49:1
    Before I was born the Lord called me
  • Tertullian (early church)
    soul also begins with conception
  • Catechism 2270  (abortion)
    human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception
  • Christian view of embryo
    embryo has full human rights and should be treated like any other born human being
  • Genesis 2:7
    The Lord God...breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being
  • Pro-choice
    view that women should have the right to choose whether or not to have an abortion
  • Pro-life
    view that supports the right to life of the foetus
  • Exodus 20:13
    You shall not murder
  • 1 Corinthians 3:16-17
    If anyone destroys God's temple, God will destroy him
  • Church of England 1980 (abortion)
    we see abortion...as a great moral evil
  • Pentecostal Assemblies of God (abortion)
    Abortion is still immoral and sinful
  • British Humanist Association (abortion)
    This choice is personal
  • Public Theology Researcher (abortion)
    If we really are part of the body of Christ...that has to involve us offering time, emotional care and financial help
  • Assisted Suicide
    suicide with the assistance of another person (euthanasia)
  • Euthanasia
    inducing a painless death, with compassion, to ease suffering. Greek for 'Good death'. Some Christians believe it is 'mercy killing', others see it as taking a life
  • Quality of life
    measure of fulfilment
  • Voluntary euthanasia
    terminally ill person asks doctor/friend to help them die peacefully and with dignity. 'mercy killing' or 'assisted suicide'
  • Involuntary euthanasia
    a person's wishes cannot be given, unable to make a decision/opinion e.g. coma therefore someone else makes a decision for them
  • Cathechism 2324
    Intentional euthanasia...is murder
  • The Salvation Army (euthanasia)
    euthanasia and assisted suicide undermine human dignity and are morally wrong
  • Pentecostal Assemblies of God (euthanasia)
    Humans are not empowered to take their own lives or the lives of others
  • Active euthanasia
    ending of a life by deliberate action e.g. fatal injection/drug
  • Passive euthanasia
    allowing terminally/incurably ill person to die by withdrawing/withholding medical treatment that only prolongs sufferings and has no real benefit e.g. stop food and water
  • Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37)
    • “Teacher,” expert in the law asked, “what must I do to inherit eternal life?” “What is written in the Law?” he replied. “How do you read it?” He answered, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’ and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself. “You have answered correctly. Do this and you will live.”
    • But he asked Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?”
    • Jesus said: “A man was going to Jericho, he was attacked by robbers. They stripped his clothes, beat him and went away, leaving him half dead. 
    • A priest happened to be going down the road, when he saw the man, he passed on the other side.
    • So too, a Levite, when he came to the place saw him, passed by on the other side.
    • But a Samaritan, came where the man was; and took pity on him. He went to him bandaged his wounds, pouring oil and wine. 
    • Then he put the man on his donkey, brought him to an inn and took care of him. 
    • The next day he took out two denarii and gave them to the innkeeper. ‘Look after him,’ he said, ‘and when I return, I will reimburse you for any extra expense you may have.’
    • “Which of these three do you think was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers?” The expert in the law replied, “The one who had mercy on him.” Jesus told him, “Go and do likewise.”
  • Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 1992 (euthanasia)
    deliberately destroying life...is contrary to our Christian conscience
  • Self-determination
    right to make decisions for oneself in life. arguement used by those who agree with voluntary euthanasia
  • John Shelby Spong (good death)
    the right to a good death is a basic human freedom
  • Deuteronomy 32:39
    There is no God beside me. I put to death and I bring to life.
  • Catechism 2280
    the life God has entrusted us... is not ours to dispose of
  • Hospices
    special places to which people go to die with dignity
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US Catholic Bishops
We cannot teach that killing is wrong by killing
Most Rev. B Thompson
Capital punishment feeds the cycle of violence in society by pandering to a lust for revenge
Against capital punishment
  • contradicts basic human right to life
  • torturously painful
  • families and friends of those who are executed are innocently suffering
  • innocent people may be executed by mistake
  • presence of death penalty may create less respect and dignity for a human person
  • there are alternatives to death penalty e.g life imprisonment, giving opportunity to change
For death penalty
  • permanently removes worst criminals leaving society safer
  • cheaper than pure incarceration
  • offers retribution
  • fear of death deters other potential criminals
  • if one murders another, they have given up their human rights, therefore lost the right to live
  • most serious criminals only understand the language of violence
Capital Punishment
form of punishment in which a prisoner is put to death for crimes committed
Fines
taking money is a deterrent and money raised can help society and government. however for rich the fine has little deterrence compared to poor therefore unjust.
Community Service
a form of punishment in which the criminal has to perform tasks useful to society, rather than going to prison. Public see that criminal is working for what they have done, more productive and effective however it is nothing to fear and is a soft-option which does not cause much discomfort to the offender
e.g. cleaning, gardening, other forms of public good.
Imprisonment
when a person is put in jail for committing a crime - e.g rape, violent assault, murder. restricts person and protects community from the person, may also allow reform, deterrent for more serious crimes, however overcrowded, many prisoners re-offend after out of prison, prisoners meet people like them therefore learn more how to be more of a criminal
Offender
someone who has done wrong e.g. broken the law
Matthew 7:3
Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother's eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye?