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- EXW (Ex Works)
- FCA (Free Carrier)
- FOB (Free on Board)
- CFR (Cost and Freight)
- CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
- CPT (Carriage Paid To)
- DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid)
- Indirect export
- Direct export
- Cooperative export
- Hermin: shortfall in demand and inadequacy of supply (investment in infrastructure)
- Quest II: in respect of the supply side of the economy only (subsidies for investment and R&D)
- PHARE (Poland and Hungary Assistance for the Reconstruction of the Economy)
This programme was introduced in support of reforms in Poland and Hungary. Countries which joined later were:
- Czech Republic
- Republic of Slovakia
(JOP = Joint Venture PHARE Programme)
This programme is designed to encourage joint ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.)
- TACIS (Technical Assistence for Commonwealth of Independent States)
The programme was introduced in order to transfer Western know-how to candidate Member States. The aim is to create conditions which encourage private investment and thus stimulate the development of democracy and the market economy.
- ECIP & JEV (European Community Investment Partners & Joint European Venture)
The EU stimulates European companies to establish joint ventures with companies from developing countries.
To make government contracts accessible to all companies established in the EU.
The participating countries impose a common tariff on outside countries.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
- The theory ignores the stages of the economic cycles of the countries. It also ignores the difference in culture and religion.
- The theory sets great store by the effects of comparative costs and no allowance is made for the limitations of these effects.
- Developing countries argue that international free trade discriminates against them (developing countries are for instance forced to specialize in agriculture and western countries specialize in technology; this will increase the gap between rich and poor).