Summary Food components and health

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Summary - Food components and health

  • 1.2 Study disign

  • What are the 2 types of study design?
    Experimental en obeservational
  • What are the types of experimental studies and what is it?
    Intervention studies are the type
    Experimental study's are the most powerful. You actually do an interventional experiment. 
  • What are the types of observational studies?
    • prospective cohort studies 
    • case-control studies
    • cross sectional studies 
    • Ecological population based studies 

    Diet of people is not changed. They are studied in there natural context. It can not lead to hard conclusions only associations. 
  • What is a FFQ?
    A FFQ stands for food frequency questionnaire 
    It assess how often you eat certain foods and in what amount. 
    It is a dietary assessment method
  • What is a 24 h dietary recall?
    This is a dietary assessment method.
    A dietitian writes down what a person ate in the last 24h (usually performed several times. 
  • What is a food diary?
    This is a dietary assessment method. 
    It is written down and weighted what people eat. 

    Unfortunalty people tend to change there eating habits and loos motivation and forget to write down things. 
  • What are food composition tables?
    These tables contain information about nutritional content of food, unfortunately they are incomplete and many food products are not listed.
  • What is a ecological study?
    This is a observational study. 
    In this study you look a a group of people not the individual. 
    You can not relate this automatically to the individual. 
  • What is a cross sectional study?
    This is a observational study.

    The dietary intake is linked to a health or disease related paramater. This is done at a single moment. 
    The downside is that you don't now which one came first. (diet coke or obesity)
    So there is risk of cofounding
  • What is a case control study?
    This is a observational study.

    The dietary intake of sick people is compared with the dietary intake of healthy people. So there is a control group. You look in the past with this study with a food frequency questioner. 
    The advantage is that you can study rear diseases. 
    The disadvantage is that there could be bias and cofounding. 
  • What is bias?
    selection bias: Not the right control group is chosen (people from poor area are compared to people from rich area)

    recolection bias: People who have a disease remember things differently
  • What is cofounding?
    Other factors play a role in the relationship. But the thing you were researching effects the other factor.
  • What is a cohort study?
    People are flooded for a long time and when they get sick later in life it is coupled to the things they awnserd in the FFQ. 
    This is the most powerful observation study. 

    they relay on FFQ
    Cofounding can happen
  • What is a intervention study?
    You don't just observe you change something. So you intervene 

    2 groups are made one who gets the treatment and one who gets a placebo. You measure the hanges that happen before and after the treatment. 

    advantage: you have avoidance without cofounding and bias. 
    disadvantages: If you wand to see if people get have to follow them for many years. 
  • 1.3 Alimentary track

  • What are the mechanical breakdowns in the alimentary tract (AT)?
    • Chewing food into small pieces 
    • Contraction of the muscles along the AT
  • What are the chemical fors of breakdown in the AT?
    digestion with enzymes
    protiens --> AA
    fats --> fatty acids
    carbohydrates --> glucose
  • What do gigestive enzyme cause and how do they work?
    Enzymes lower the activation energy
    Digestive enzymes cause hydrolysis
  • Where are digestive enzymes present?
    All trough the alimentary track expect for the colon
  • What for breakdown happens in the moth
    carbohydrates are formed from starch?
  • What kind of digestion happens in the small intestines?
    most chemical digestion by enzymes produced by the pancreas of intestinal cells.
  • What kind of digestion happens in the large intestines?
    Digestion by microflora, fibers
  • What does saliva consist of, form what is it produced and for what is it useful?
    99% water
    1% salt, mucus, enzyme and antimicrobial compounds 
    produced by saliva glands (foor mout, ears)
    usefull for lubrication, chemical digestion, anti microbial function and important for tasting
  • What is the esophageal?
    De slokdarm
  • What is the upper and the lower esophageal sphincter?
    uppper: muscularing that losses when food is swallowed 
    lower prevents reflux of food from the stomach 
  • What happens when you swallow food?
    Bout the upper and the lower esphageal relax so the food can go into the stomach. A motion called peristalsis helps this.
  • What is the epiglottis?
    Dit is de strotklep
    Prevents foood for entering the trachea (luchtpijp) the epiglottis contracts and covers the larynx (strottenhoofd)
  • What happens in the stomach?
    It's main goal is protein digestion, has a low pH. Food stays here several minutes till few hours. 
    So no fat digestion
  • What classes the stomach?
    The stomach is closed by the lower esophageal sphincter and the politic sphincter.
  • What are the 4 main cell types in the stomach?
    1. Chief cells, produce pepsine (cuts protein)
    2. Parietal cells, hydrochloric acid (gives a lower pH to the stomach)
    3. Goblet cells, produce mucus (slijm), fluvial cells lay over it in order to protect them form the low pH of the stomach
    4. Endocrine paracrine cells, produce hormones
  • What are the parts of the small intestine?
    Duodenum, jejunum and ileum
  • What is the duodenum?
    30 cm long, connect the stomach to the jejunum. Digestive juices form pancreas and bile are added in duodenum. It controls the rate of tempting the stomach bu the hormone secretien and chlystrokin. It also triggers the release of the enzymes form the pancreas.
  • What are the 2 main hormones in the duodenum?
    secretien and chlystrokin
  • What is the jejunum?
    mayor side of nutrient digestion
  • What happens in the ileum?
    most nutrients absorption happens here
  • What main function of the column and how does to movement go?
    Main function column is absorbing water and serve as vehicle. Lot of microorganisms are present that food on fibers. 
    Movement is due to peristalsis (contraction and relaxation of circular muscles.
  • Where and how does most digestion take place?
    Manly by juices of the pancreas and the small intestent.
  • What are the enzymes are produced in the pancreas?

    Added in the duodenum. 
  • What are the enzymes produced by the enterocytes?
    They lay in the small intestines and they produce:
    disaccharidases and peptidases.
  • What are the enzymes produced by the liver?
    bile (gal), sotred in the gall bladder. Released to duodenum. Functions as emulsifier and therefore helps with digestion.
  • What is the small intestine made of?
    Folds, villi and microvilli
  • What are folds?
    Wringkesl, visible by eye
  • What are villi?
    Finger like projection, network of incoming and outcomming blood vessels (lacteal). Glucose and AA can be absorbed and transported by blood.
  • What are microvilli?
    The brush border of a cell.
  • How does fat enter the body?
    Trout the lymphatic vessels (lacteals).
  • What are the 5 main cells in the intestinal wall?
    1. Entrocytes, meeste van aanwezig produceren digestive enzymes and main absorption cell.
    2. Goblet cells, produce mucus
    3. entero-endocrine cells, produce hormones
    4. Chief cells, produce pepsine (cuts protein)
    5. Paneth cells, give antibacterial lysosomes. 
  • What is the self renewal of the intestinal wall?
     In the vally of the villi or so called scripts there are new cells made of stam cells and they replace tho older cels.
  • What are entero-endocrines?
    Cells that lay in the AT and produce gut hormones.
  • What happens to water soluble nutrients?
    They go to the capillaries (aderen) that transports it to the liver. It goes to blood in which oxygen is low.
  • What happens to fat soluble nutrients?
    They are transported to the liver by portail artery which also give oxygen to the liver.
  • What is diarrhea?
    To much water in stool, can lead to drying out which needs to be treated with dehydration solutions.
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What is osteomalancia?
Calcium difficiency disease what cuts away the bowns
What is osteoporisis?
. Osteoporosis describes the age-related decrease in bone mass and bone strength and is partly related to the gradual loss of calcium from bone. 
What is fetal programming?
Something that was allready initated/programed due to certain exposers in a feutes.
What is the difference between enrichement and fortification of a food product?
Enrichment is used to bring the level of something back to the origenal level (fibers in white bread)
Fortification is used to add something to the food product that was origanally also in the original form of the food product not there.
Amino acids are not secreted into the urine as such but are first converted into a metabolite rich in nitrogen. What is the name of this metabolite and where is it produced?
Urea, This is produced in the liver
The synthesis of body proteins is often compared to building a house, with the bricks signifying amino acids. However, a fundamental difference separates the two. Explain.
Your body replaced the briks. So you have a turnover of the protiens
Gelatin is a very poor quality animal protein. It is one of the few foods that cause a net loss of protein if eaten exclusively. Gelatin is derived from an animal protein that serves important structural functions in numerous tissues.a) which one?b) which amino acids are lacking or absent in gelatin?c) why would the exclusive consumption of gelatin cause a net loss of protein (=negative N balance)?
a. Made from collagen
b. triptosin
c. Protein absorbed = protein broken down. When the absorbed protein can not make new body proteins you have anegative N balance.
What are the limiting proteins in wheat and legumes?
rice: lipin
legumes: methionie
What are the main proteins in hair and mucle?
Hair: keratin
Muscle: actin
How much fibers are eaten by people in europe?
Between 15 to 30-40