Summary Foundations of behavioral neuroscience

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ISBN-10 1292021969 ISBN-13 9781292021966
135 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Foundations of behavioral neuroscience". The author(s) of the book is/are Neil R Carlson. The ISBN of the book is 9781292021966 or 1292021969. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Foundations of behavioral neuroscience

  • 2 Structure and functions of cells of the nervous system

  • What types of neurons are there?
    Motor->controls muscle contraction
    Sensory -> detects changes in environment
    Inter-> located entirely within cns
  • What are the 4 basic structures of a neuron?
    Soma-Cell body
    Dendrite- recipients of messages
    Axons- senders of messages
    Terminal buttons - synapses at the end of the axons
  • What is a microtubule?
    Strand of protein filaments with hollow core to transport substances from place to place within cells.
  • What is a glia?
    Support cell of cns
  • What is an astrocyte?
    Glial cell that provides support for neurons in cns. Provides nutrients and other substances.
  • What is an oligodendrocyte? 
    A type of glial cell, in cns that forms myelin sheaths.
  • What is a microglia?
    The smallest glia cell they act as a phagocyte. Protects the brain from invading organism
  • What is phagocytosis?
    The process by which cells engulf and digest other cells or debris caused by cellular degeneration.
  • What is a schwann cell?
    A cell in the peripheral nervous system that is wrapped around a myelinated axon.
  • How are electrical potentials of axons measured?
    Via electrodes and microelectrodes
  • What is resting potential?
    Membrane potential of a neuron -70mV
  • What is depolarization?
    The inside of the cell becomes less negative
  • What is hyperpolarisation?
    An increase in membrane potential relative to resting potential.
  • What are electrolytes?
    Subsbtance when mixed with water will split into two parts each with an opposing electrical charge.
  • What does the sodium potassium pump do?
    Pumps 3 sodium ions out and 2 potassium ions in. So maintaining the negative potential.
  • What causes the undershoot of the action potential?
    Potassium channels are still opened, so conductance of potassium is greater than it is in resting state
  • What is saltatory conduction?
    Conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. Jumps from node of ranvier to the next.
  • What is a ligand?
     A chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor
  • What is ionotropic receptor?
    A receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter and an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the NT attaches to the binding site.
  • What is a metabotropic receptor?
    Receptor contains binding site for NT.
  • What is a G protein?
    A protein coupled to metabotropic receptor, conveys messages to other molecules when a ligand binds and activates the receptor.
  • What is a second messenger?
    Chemical produced when G protein activates an enzyme; carries a signal and puts other events in motion.
  • What is reuptake?
    Termination of AP, reentry of NT back to membrane of terminal button.
  • What is enzymatic deactivation?
    The destruction of neurotransmitter by enzyme.
  • How are postsynaptic potentials kept brief?
    By reuptake and enzymatic deactivation.
  • What are neuromodulators?
    Secreted substance that acts as a NT but is not restricted to synaptic cleft.
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