Summary Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition

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ISBN-10 1292229861 ISBN-13 9781292229867
403 Flashcards & Notes
7 Students
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Summary 1:

  • Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition
  • Frederic H Martini Judi L Nath Edwin F Bartholomew
  • 9781292229867 or 1292229861
  • 2018

Summary - Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition

  • 4 The tissue level of organization

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  • 4.1 The four types are epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous

  • What is histology?
    Histology is the study of tissues.

  • What are tissues?
    Tissues are collections of specialized cells and cell products that carry out a limited number of functions.

  • What are the four basic types of tissue?
    • Epithelia tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Muscle tissue
    • Nervous tissue

  • What is epithelial tissue?
    Epithelial tissue covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, and forms glands.
    An  epithelium is a tissue existing of cells that are tightly connected to each other, without extracellular matrix. It is derived from one of the three primary germ layers(ecto-, endo- or meso-derm).

  • What is connective tissue?
    Connective tissue fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues, transports materials within the body, and stores energy.

  • What is muscle tissue?
    Muscle tissue is specialized for contraction and includes the skeletal muscles of the body, the muscle of the heart, and the muscular walls of hollow organs.

  • What is nervous tissue?
    Nervous tissue carries information from one part of the body to another in the form of electrical impulses.
  • 4.2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines internal surfaces, and serves other essential functions


  • What are ecto-, endo- and mesoderm?
    These are the three layers of the early embryo. Ectoderm is the most outside layer, endoderm is the most inside layer, and mesoderm is the middle layer.

  • What is an example of epithelia tissue?
    The skin.

  • What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
    • Provide physical protection
    • Control permeability
    • Provide sensation
    • Produce specialized secretions

  • What are gland cells?
    Gland cells are epithelial cells that produce secretions.

  • What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
    • Polarity
    • Cellularity
    • Attached to a basement membrane
    • Avascularity; no blood circulation
    • Regeneration

  • What is a basement membrane?
    A basement membrane is formed from the fusion of several successive layers (the basal lamina and reticular lamina), a collagen matrix, and proteoglycans (intercellular cement). The basement membrane adheres to the basal surface and to the underlying tissues to establish the cell's border and resist stretching.

  • How are epithelial cells different from other body cells?
    Epithelial cells have several structural specializations.

  • What are the three specializations of epithelial cells?
    1. The movement of fluids over the epithelial surface, providing protection and lubrication.
    2. The movement of fluids through the epithelium, to control permeability.
    3. The production of secretions that provide physical protection or act as chemical messengers.

  • A specialized epithelial cell is often divided into two functional regions. What are these regions and what does it mean?
    This means that the epithelial cell has a strong polarity. 
    The two regions are the apical surface and the baso-lateral surfaces. 
    The apical surface is where the cell is exposed to an internal of external environment.
    The baso-lateral surface includes both the base (basal surface), where the cell attaches to underlying epithelial cells or deeper tissues, and the sides (lateral surfaces), where the cell contacts its neighbors.

  • What are microvilli?
    Microvilli are nonmotile projections that greatly increase the surface area of the cell exposed to the extracellular environment. Accordingly, they cover the surfaces of cells that are actively absorbing materials, such as the cells lining the digestive tract.

  • Where are microvilli especially abundant?
    Microvilli are especially abundant on epithelial surfaces where absorption and secretion take place, such as along portions of the digestive system and kidneys.

  • What are motile cilia? What is their function?
    Cilia are fairly long, slender extensions of the plasma membrane.
     Motile cilia are important because they 'beat' rhythmically to move fluids or secretions across the cell surface.

  • What are the three factors that help maintain the physical integrity of an epithelium?
    1. Intercellular connections
    2. Attachment to the basement membrane
    3. Epithelial maintenance and repair.
  • What are cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)?
    CAMs are transmembrane proteins that interconnect large areas of opposing plasma membranes. CAMs bind to each other and to extracellular materials.
  • What are cell junctions?
    Cell junctions are specialized areas of the plasma membrane that attach a cell to another cell or to extracellular material.
  • What are the three most common types of cell junctions?
    • Gap junctions
    • Tight junctions
    • Desmosomes
  • What is a gap junction?
    At a gap junction, two cells are held together by two embedded interlocking transmembrane proteins called connexons. Two alligned connexons form a narrow passageway that lets small molecules and ions pass from cell to cell. This is necessary for rapid intercellular communication.
  • What is a tight junction?
    A tight junction is formed by the fusion of the outer layers of two plasma membranes. Tight junctions prevent the diffusion of fluids and solutes between the cells. A continuous adhesion belt is tied to the microfilaments of the terminal web.
  • What is the function of the adhesion belt in a tight junction?
    The adhesion belt is a forms a continuous band that encircles cells and binds them to their neighbors.
  • What is the lumen?
    The lumen is a passageway that is being formed when the epithelium lines a tube.
  • What is a desmosome?
    A desmosome is where CAMs and proteoglycans link the opposing plasma membranes. Desmosomes are very strong and can resist stretching and twisting.
  • What are the two types of desmosomes?
    • Spot desmosome
    • Hemidesmosome

  • What is a spot desmosome?
    Spot desmosomes are small discs connected to bands of intermediate filaments. The intermediate filaments stabilize the shape of the cell.
  • What is a hemidesmosome?
    Hemidesmosomes resemble half of a spot desmosome. Rather than attaching one cell to another, a hemidesmosome attaches a cell to extracellular filaments in the basement membrane. This attachment helps stabilize the position of the epithelial cell and anchors it to underlying tissues.
  • What two layers does the basal membrane consist of?
    Basal lamina and reticular lamina.
    Basal lamina is closest to the epithelium. It functions as a selective filter and it restricts the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the underlying connective tissue into the epithilium.
    The reticular lamina is the deeper portion of the basement membrane. It consists mostly of reticular fibers and ground substance. This layer gives the basement membrane its strength. The reticular lamina also acts as a filter that determines what substances can diffuse between the adjacent tissues and the epithelium.
  • Identify four essential functions of epithelial cells.
    • Physical protection
    • Control permeability
    • Provide sensation
    • Produce specialized secretions
  • List five important characteristics of epithelial tissue.
    • Polarity
    • Cellularity
    • Attachment
    • Avascularity
    • Regeneration
  • What is the probable function of an epithelium whose cells bear microvilli?
    An epithelium whose cells have microvilli is probably involved in absorption or secretion. The microvilli greatly increase the cellular surface area available for these processes.
  • Identify the various types of epithelial cell junctions.
    • Tight junctions
    • Gap junction
    • Spotdesmosomes
    • Hemidesmosomes

  • What is the functional significance of gap junctions?
    Gap junctions allow small molecules and ions to pass from cell to cell. When connecting epithelial cells, they help coordinate such functions as the beating of cilia. In cardiac and smooth muscle tissues, they are essential for coordinating muscle cell contractions.
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Summary 2:

  • Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Global Edition
  • Frederic H Martini Judi Lindsley Nath Edwin F Bartholomew
  • 9781292057217 or 1292057211
  • 2014

Summary - Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Global Edition

  • 1 An introduction to anatomy and physiology

  • uit welke twee onderdelen bestaat een centrosoom?
    een paar centriolen en MTOC
  • 1.3 Anatomy and physiology are closely integrated

  • Wat houdt het principe van complementariteit van structuur en functie in?
    Elke functie wordt uitgevoerd door een bepaalde structuur, en de vorm van een structuur relateert tot zijn functie.
  • Anatomie onderzoekt structurele relaties, en fysiologie onderzoekt functionele eigenschappen.
  • In welke twee categorieën kan anatomie opgedeeld worden, als je kijkt naar de mate van structureel detail?
    • Grove (macroscopische) anatomie.
    • Microscopische anatomie.
  • Wat houdt grove (macroscopische) anatomie in?
    Het bestuderen van relatief grote structuren, waarbij geen microscoop nodig is.
  • Welke verschillende varianten van grove (macroscopische) anatomie vallen er te onderscheiden? 
    1. Oppervlakte anatomie.
    2. Regionale anatomie.
    3. Systemische anatomie.
    4. Klinische anatomie.
    5. Ontwikkelingsanatomie.
  • Wat houdt oppervlakte anatomie in?
    Het bestuderen van de algemene vorm en oppervlakkige markeringen.
  • Wat houdt regionale anatomie in?
    Het focussen de anatomische organisatie van een bepaald gebied van het lichaam, zoals het hoofd, de nek of de romp.
  • Wat houdt systemische anatomie in?
    Het apart bestuderen van de 11 verschillende orgaansystemen, die het lichaam bezit.
  • Welke subordening valt er te maken in de klinische anatomie?
    • Pathologische anatomie.
    • Radiografische anatomie.
    • Chirurgische anatomie.
  • Wat houdt pathologische anatomie in?
    Bestudering van anatomische kenmerken, die veranderen tijdens ziekte.
  • Wat houdt radiografische anatomie in?
    Het bekijken van anatomische structuren door gebruik te maken van speciale beeldvormende technieken.
  • Wat houdt chirurgische anatomie in?
    De studie van belangrijke herkenningspunten voor chirurgie.
  • Wat houdt ontwikkelingsanatomie in?
    Beschrijft veranderingen in vorm, die plaatsvinden van de bevruchting tot de volwassenheid.
  • Wat is een orgaansysteem?
    Een groep organen, die gezamenlijk een bepaalde functie uitvoeren.
  • Wat houdt embryologie in?
    De studie van grote structurele veranderingen gedurende de eerste twee maanden van de ontwikkeling.
  • Wat houdt microscopische anatomie in?
    Houdt zich bezig met structuren, die niet te zien zijn zonder het gebruik van een microscoop.
  • In welke twee categorieën valt microscopische anatomie in te delen?
    • Cytologie.
    • Histologie.
  • Wat houdt cytologie in?
    Het bestuderen van de interne structuur van een individuele cel.
  • Wat is een cel?
    De meest simpele vorm van leven, bestaande uit chemische stoffen in verschillende combinaties.
  • Wat houdt histologie in?
    De bestudering van weefsels.
  • Wat is een weefsel?
    Een groep gespecialiseerde cellen en celproducten, die samenwerken om een bepaalde functie uit te voeren.
  • Wat is een orgaan?
    Een combinatie van verschillende soorten weefsels. Elk orgaan heeft een specifieke functie.
  • Op welk niveau ligt de grens tussen microscopisch en macroscopisch?
    Een orgaan is goed te bestuderen zonder microscoop. Op dit niveau ligt dus de grens.
  • Wat houdt menselijke fysiologie in?
    De studie van functies en werkingen van het menselijk lichaam. Deze functies worden uitgevoerd via complexe processen.
  • Noem enkele takken uit de fysiologie.
    • Cel fysiologie.
    • Orgaan fysiologie.
    • Systemische fysiologie.
    • Pathologische fysiologie.
  • Wat houdt cel fysiologie in?
    Kijkt naar gebeurtenissen in een cel en tussen cellen onderling, waarbij belangrijke atomen en moleculen betrokken zijn.
  • Wat houdt orgaan fysiologie in?
    Studie naar de functie van een specifiek orgaan.
  • Wat houdt systemische fysiologie in?
    Kijkt naar het functioneren van verschillende orgaansystemen.
  • Wat houdt pathologische fysiologie in?
    Bestudering van de effecten van een ziekte op organen en orgaansystemen.
  • Wat houdt een verschijnsel in voor een dokter?
    Een objectieve ziekte indicator, zoals koorts. Dit valt dus te meten.
  • Wat houden symptomen in voor een dokter?
    Subjectieve ziekte indicatoren. Iemand voelt zich bijvoorbeeld moe.
  • Wat wordt bedoeld met de wetenschappelijke methode?
    Systeem van voortschrijdende kennis. Dit begint bij het formuleren van een hypothese, waarna je deze gaat testen met data verzameld door observatie en experimenteren. Ook medische diagnose valt hieronder.
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What is the tunica externa?
Aka the tunica adventitia; a connective tissue sheath that forms the outer layer and blends into adjacent tissues. 
Arteries: With collagen and scattered bands of elastic fibers. 
Veins: Thicker than other layers, with elastic fibers and smooth muscle cell bundles.
What is the tunica media?
Middle layer; with concentric sheets of smooth muscle layers in a framework of loose connective tissue. Collagen fibers connect it to the tunia intima and externa. Thickets in small arteriers. The external elastic membrane separates it from the tunica externa.
What is the tunica intima?
Inner layer of blood vessel; with endothelial lining and surrounding layers of connective tissue with elastic fibers. 
Arteries have a thick layer of elastic fibers (the internal elastic membrane) in the outer margin.
What are the three laters of arteries and veins?
Tunica intima, tunica media and tunica externa
Along what pathway does blood travel through the body?
  1. Arteries carry blood away from heart
  2. Enter peripheral tissues, and branch repeatedly into arterioles (smalles arterial branches)
  3. Blood moves into capillaries; diffusion between blood and interstitial fluid
  4. Blood enters small venules
  5. Venules unite to form veins; blood returns to heart. 
What are the 5 general classes of blood vessels?
Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules & veins
How does fibrinolysis occur?
  1. Thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator activate proenzyme plasminogen. 
  2. Produces plasmin, this digests fibrin strands
  3. Clot erodes.
What is fibrinolysis?
Dissolving of a clot.
What is clot retraction?
Torn edges of vessel are pulled closer together to reduce bleeding and stabilize the injury. Reduces size of damaged area.
How is blood clotting restricted? (Anti-thrombotic factors)
By substances that deactivate/remove clotting factors. 
  • Anticoagulants (eg. Antithrombin-III); an enzyme that inhibits clotting factors including  thrombin
  • Heparin; released by basophils and mast cells accerlates activation of antithrombin-III
  • Thrombomodulin; released by endothelial cells that converts thrombin into an enzyme that activates protein C (this inactivates clotting facotrs and stimulates plasmin formation; breaks down fibrin strands)
  • Prostacyclin; inhibits platelet aggregation and opposes action of thrombin and ADP.