Summary fundamentals of management

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Summary - fundamentals of management

  • 1 understanding groups and managing work teams

  • what are the 5 things on which a group can differ?
    1. surface level diversity 
    2. deep level diversity 
    3. separation
    4. variety 
    5. disparity 
  • 1.1 What is a group and what stages of development do groups go through?

  • what is a group?
    two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve a specific goal.
  • what is the difference between a formal and an informal group?
    a formal group is created to achieve a specific goal in an organisational structure and an informal group is a group who is created without any goals or targets, they happen naturally.
  • what are the 4 different formal groups?
    1. command group: group made by. organisational chart and gives direct information to a superior
    2. task groups: a group created to accomplish a specific task and after the task the group is deleted. 
    3. cross functional teams: groups that imply individuals from different work areas and share information or groups who are trained to do each other's job. 
    4. self managed teams: teams that are independent and  in addition to their own task also take on traditional managerial responsabilities. 
  • what are the 5 stages of group forming and explain them:
    forming: first, people join the group and when they have joined they define the groups purpose, structure and leadership (they test what behaviour is accepted or not), this fase is completed when the members feel part of the group. 
    storming: in this fase people are going to determine who will leed and control the group and what everybody's task will do, once this stage is completed there will be more or less a hierarchy and the groups direction will be clear. 
    norming: in this fase personal relationships will start to grow and there will be a sense of group identity and camaderie, when this stage is completed when group structure solidifies and there are common norms and expectations about behaviour in the group. 
    performing: for permanent groups this is the last stage, the group moves from getting to know each other and setting up norms to really working on the groups task. 
    adjourning: this is the last stage for temporary groups and some people will be excited about the accomplishments and others will be sad about the loss of camaderie and friendship. 
  • 1.2 5 major concepts of group behavior

  • what are the 5 major concepts of group behaviour and explain:
    1. roles: your behaviour will change according to your given position in a social unit. 
    2. - norms: acceptable standards shared by group members (dresscode) conformity: adjusting your behaviour to align with group norms. Solomon Asch: 35%
    3. status systems: a prestige position in a group, a difference between how you see your position and how others see your position can have behavioural consequences
    4. group size: small ( 5-7): completing tasks faster, figuring out what to do and getting it done. large (>12):  problem solving, finding facts and gaining diverse input. 
    5. group cohesiveness: are team members attracted to each other and do they share the same goals
  • what is social loafing?
    if you have a large group you will les likely put the same effort as small group because there is a divorce of responsability and no-one knows if you have done a lot or a small amount
  • 1.3 How are groups turned into effective teams?

  • what is the difference between a work team and a work group?
    work team share a common goal or task unlike a working group, working groups just share information and do their individual tasks, also working groups have less synergy and they get evaluated individual while working teams are evaluated individual and mutual. also the skills of working team or complementary and the working groups are neutral
  • what are the 4 most common types of work teams?
    1. problem-solving team: these teams are from the same department and try to improve work activities or solve specific problems, however they don't get the authority to implement their activities. 
    2. self-managed work team: these are teams that operate without manager and are responsible for a complete segment, they have the authority to implement changes and work closely with other departments. 
    3. cross functional team : these are teams with individuals that have different specialities and this way they can inform each other on things the others doesn't know and this way they reduce mistakes. 
    4. virtual teams: teams that are not physically connected, these teams are more task-oriented. 
  • what are the 3 aspects on how a manager can influence team behaviour?
    proper selection of team members: if a team member is too individualistic he shouldn't be set in a team
    training: working in a team requires a set of behaviours that can be learned threw workshops where they learn the skills that are needed to work in a team
    rewarding system: the company can reward those actions where employees show good behaviour of working in a team. 
  • why is IT so important for teamwork?
    IT is a very powerful tool in helping team share information and to communicate, in recent times most teams are continents away from each other and due to IT it is a lot easier to share info and communicate
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