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Summary - Genetics Analysis and Principles
2 Mendelian inheritance
2.1 Mendel's study of pea plants
What is a cross?A cross is when two distinct individuals with different characteristics are bred to each other.
What is a hybridization experiment?A hybridization experiment is when two distinct individuals with different characteristics are bred to each other.
What are hybrids?Hybrids are the offspring of a cross or a hybridization experiment.
What is a gamete?A gamete is a haploid reproductive cell that fuses to form a zygote.
What is the process of fertilization in pea plants?Male gametes (sperm) are produced within pollen grains that form in the anthers, and the female gametes (eggs) are produced within ovules that form in the ovaries. For fertilization to occur, a pollen grain lands on the stigma, which stimulates the growth of a pollen tube. This enables cells to enter the stigma and migrate toward an ovule. Fertilization takes place when a sperm enters the micropyle, an opening in the ovule wall, and fuses with an egg cell.
What is a stigma?A stigma is the structure in flowering plants on which the pollen grain lands and the pollen tube starts to grow so that sperm cells can reach the egg cells.
What is an anther?An anther is the structure in flowering plants that gives rise to pollen grains.
What is self-fertilization? What is an example?Self-fertilization means that the pollen and eggs are derived from the same plant.
An example is a pea plant.
What is cross-fertilization?Cross-fertilization is an experiment in which crosses between differents plants are made.
In this experiment, which plant, the white- or purple-flowered one, is providing the egg cells, and which is providing the sperm cells?The white-flowered plant is providing the sperm, and the purple-flowered plant is providing the eggs.
What are characters?Characters are the general characteristics of an organism.
What is a trait, or variant?A trait, or variant, are the specific properties of a character.
What means breeding true?Breeding true means that a trait does not vary in appearance from generation to generation.
What is true-breeding strain, or true-breeding line?A true-breeding strain, or true-breeding line is a variety that continues to produce the same trait after several generations of self-fertilization.
Prior to fertilization, where is the male gamete located in a pea plant?The male gamete is found within pollen grains.
Why are pea plants suitable organisms to study genetically?
- They were easy to cross;
- They were capable of self-fertilization;
- They came in several different varieties.
- They were easy to cross;
What are the seven characteristics that Mendel chose to study?
- Flower color;
- Flower position;
- Seed color;
- Seed shape;
- Pod color;
- Pod shape.
2.2 Law of segregation
What is a single-factor cross?A single-factor cross is a cross in which an experimenter observes one character.
What are monohybrids?Monohybrids are single-character hybrids, which are produced when two parents with different variant for a given character are crossed.
What is a gene?A gene is a unit of heredity that may influence the outcome of an organism's traits.
What is an allele?An allele is an alternative form of a particular gene.
What is Mendel's law of segregation?The two copies of a gene segregate (or separate) from each other during transmission from parent to offspring.
What is homozygous?Homozygous is when an individual has two identical copies of a gene.
What is heterozygous?Heterozygous is when an individual has two different alleles for a specific gene.
What is genotype?Genotype refers to the genetic composition of an individual.
What is phenotype?Phenotype refers to observable traits of an organism.
What is a punnet square?A punnet square is a diagrammatic method in which the gametes that two parents can produce are aligned next to a square grid as a way to predict the types of offspring the parents will produce and in what proportions.
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When does genomic imprinting happen?
Genomic imprinting happens prior to fertilization, it involves a change in a single gene or chromsome during gamete formation.
What are the two different meanings of horizontal lines in a pedigree?
Horizontal lines connect two individuals that have offspring together, and they connect all of the offspring that produced by the same two parents.
If the recipient cell did not already have a lys- gene, could the lys+ DNA become incorporated into the bacterial chromosome? Explain.
If the recipient cell did not already have a lys- gene, the lys+ DNA could be incorporated into the bacterial chromosome by nonhomologous recombination.
Transduction is sometimes described as a mistake in the bacteriophage reproductive cycle. Explain how it can be viewed as a mistake.
The normal process is for bacteriophage DNA to be incorporated into a phage coat. In transduction, a segment of bacterial chromosomal DNA is incorporated into a phage coat.
What are bacteriophages?
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacterial cells.
Give three examples of plasmids.
- F factor (fertility factor)
- R factor (resistance plasmid)
- Virulence plasmids
What is a plasmid?
A plasmid is a small piece of DNA that can consists independently of chromosomal DNA.
With regard to studying the mechanism of conjugation, what is the purpose of using a U-tube?
Because bacteria are too small to pass through the filter, the U-tube apparatus can determine if direct cell-to-cell contact is necessary for gene transfer to occur.
Describe how genetic transfer can explain growth of colonies on the middle plate.
To grow, the colonies must have functional copies of all five genes. This could occur by the transfer met+ and bio+ to the met- bio- thr+ leu+ thi+ strain transfer or the transfer of the thr+ leu+ thi+ genes to the met+ bio+ thr- leu- thi- strain.
What is transformation?
In the case of transformation, genetic material is released into the environment when a bacterial cell dies. This material then binds to a living bacterial cell, which can take it up.