Summary Harrison's Endocrinology, 3E

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ISBN-10 0071814876 ISBN-13 9780071814874
196 Flashcards & Notes
6 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Harrison's Endocrinology, 3E". The author(s) of the book is/are J Jameson. The ISBN of the book is 9780071814874 or 0071814876. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Harrison's Endocrinology, 3E

  • 2 Disorders of Anterior Pituitary and Hypothalamus

  • The pituitary contains:

    • Anterior pituitary (adenohypofyse)
    • Neurohypophysis
  • The Anterior pituitary produces the following hormones:

    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Growth hormone (GH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Which 6 hormones does the anterior pituitary produce?

    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Growth hormone (GH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • What makes the treatment of hormone-excess syndromes caused by malfunction of the anterior pituitary elusive?
    The differences in clinical manifestation of the diseases are usually fairly subtle.
  • 2.1.1 Anatomy

  • What makes the major artery from the hypothalamus to the pituitary suitable in terms of transmission?
    The hypothalamic-pituitary portal plexus allows reliable transmission of peptide hormones to the pituitary without systemic dilution of the peptides.
  • By which atery is the Neurohypophysis supplied?
    By the inferior hypophyseal arteries.
  • Which artery provides the anterior pituitary of blood?
    The hypothalamic-pituitary portal plexus
  • In what fashion does the anterior pituitary release it's hormones?
    In a pulsing fashion
  • What makes intrasellar pathological processes exceptionally dangerous?
    They have a big chance of inflicting vascular and neural damage to the brain.
  • Because the sella turcica is contiguous to vascular and neurological structures, intrasellar pathological processen may have significant central mass effect (e.g. collateral damage) to surrounding structures.
  • Where is the pituitary located?
    In the sella turcica (just below the hypothalamus)
  • What is the main difference in innervation by the hypothalamus between the Anterior pituitary and the Neurohypophysis?
    The Anterior pituitary is innervated by the hypothalamic-pituitary portal plexus by which it receives hypothalamic hormones. In contrast, the Neurohypophysis is Directly innervated by the hypothalamus.
  • Which part of the pituitary is more sensitive to damage of the pituitary stalk?
    The Neurohypophysis, as this part of the pituitary is directly innervated by the hypothalamus through the stalk.
  • 2.1.2 Pituitary Development

  • How does the pituitary devolop?

    • In the Rathke's pouch
    • By interaction of transcription factors and precursor cells
  • What makes Pit-1 an important transcription factor in the development of the pituitary?
    Pit-1 determines cell-specific expression of GH, PRL and TSH
  • 2.2 Hypothalamic and anterior pituitary insufficiency

  • What is hypopituitarism?
    This is a disease of the anterior pituitary in which one or more of the anterior pituitary hormones are reduced.
  • How is Hypopituitarism acquired?
    • inherited disorder
    • inflammation
    • tumors
    • vascular damage to the pituitary arteries
  • 2.2.1.1 pituitary dysplasia

  • Pituitary dysplasia may result in ... pituitary gland development:

    1. aplastic
    2. hypoplastic
    3. ectopic
  • Which disorders may result from pituitary dysplasia?
    midline craniofacial disorders
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Latest added flashcards

What is the function of the transcription factors named in the chapter?
They keep track on the development and induce the expression of thyroid specific genes.
What is the Wolff-CHaikoff effect?
The organification of Iodide by hydrogen peroxidase and TPO is supressed.
Which factors, other than TSH, influence the growth and function of the thyroid follicles?
  • IGF-1
  • EGF
  • TGF-b
  • cytokines
Which diseases are caused by a defect in the TSH-R?
  • thyroid hypoplasia
  • congenital hypothyroidism
What is the reaction on TSH-a binding to a TSH-Receptor?
adenylyl cyclase gets activated which promotes the formation of cAMP
Which structures of the follicle cells are most common to mutations?
Tg and TPO
By which enzyme are T1 and T2 deiodinated?
dehalogenase
What happens with Tg when it has all the iodotyrosines coupled?
It is reuptaken by the follicle cell and then proteolysed.
Which protein catalyzes the coupling of T1 and T2?
TPO
To which part of the Tg is reactive iodide added?
To the tyrosyl residues at the Tg.