Summary Historical and Conceptual Issues in Psychology

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ISBN-10 0273743678 ISBN-13 9780273743675
393 Flashcards & Notes
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Summary 1:

  • Historical and Conceptual Issues in Psychology
  • Marc Brysbaert Kathy Rastle
  • 9780273743675 or 0273743678
  • 2012

Summary - Historical and Conceptual Issues in Psychology

  • 1 The Wider Pictere

  • Welke opvattingen vallen onder de waarheidstheorie?
    Als je representaties hebt, dan valt al snel op dat sommige van die representaties “kloppen” (2+2=4) en andere niet (2+2=5). Daarom krijg je onmiddellijk het concept “waarheid” cadeau.

    De vraag wat sommige representaties waar maakt, en andere onwaar is een centraal punt in de filosofie
  • Wat is intentionaliteit?
    Het feit dat je gedachten “ergens betrekking op hebben” gericht zijn op de wereld (ze “gaan over iets”).
  • Wat is ontologie?
    Hoe zit de wereld in elkaar?
  • Wat is epistemologie?
    Hoe weten we wat waar is?
  • Wat is esthetiek?
    Wat maakt sommige dingen mooi en andere lelijk?
  • Wat is ethiek?
    Wat maakt sommige daden goed en andere slecht?
  • Wie was Heraclitus en wat was zijn theorie?
    (535-475 v. Chr)
    • Heraclitus (“de duistere”) betwijfelt of er wel iets is dat ooit hetzelfde blijft 
    • “Men stapt nooit twee keer in dezelfde rivier” 
    • De enige constante is verandering 
    • Dit principe staat bekend als Panta Rhei (“alles stroomt”) 
  • Wie is Phyrro en wat is zijn theorie?
    (360-270 v. Chr)
    • Articuleert het skepticisme: Houdt vol dat men nooit iets zeker kan weten 
    • Betekenis voor de filosofie is enorm: het ontwijken van de skepticus is een hoofdaktiviteit van filosofen geworden 
    • Primaire motivatie voor René Descartes (1596-1650) “ik denk dus ik ben”) 
    • Inspiratie voor de superskepticus: David Hume (1711-1777) 
  • Om welke 3 redenen is het skepticisme interessant?
    1. Het komt voort uit een (destijds nieuwe) vraag naar rechtvaardiging van kennisclaims
    2. Als je probeert de positie te argumenteren dan betrek je snel eenintern inconsistente stelling (“ik weet zeker dat ik niets zeker weet”) 
    3. Je moet je ertoe verhouden, niet alleen als filosoof of wetenschapper, maar ook als mens
  • Wat is het nativisme?
    Er bestaat ingeboren kennis, een geassocieerde bewering van rationalisme.
  • Wat zijn de dingen van Plato's grot?
    1. Echte kennis kan niet tot stand komen door waarneming; wij zien immers slechts imperfecte vormen (bijvoorbeeld getekende cirkels ) 
    2. Toch kunnen we perfecte vormen “zien” in onze geest (bijvoorbeeld de perfecte cirkel ) 
    3. Als dat idee van een cirkel niet uit de waarneming komt, waar komt hij dan vandaan?
    4. Antwoord: wij “herinneren” ons deze ideeën uit onze goddelijke oorsprong 
    5. Onze geest is voortgekomen uit de ideeënhemel waar de perfecte vormen zijn 
    6. Plato geloofde in reïncarnatie, en verklaarde zo onze kennis van perfecte vormen 
    7. Voor echte kennis moet je je dus niet tot de empirie wenden; je moet je herinneren wat je al weet… 
  • When the soul is firmly fixed on the domain where truth and reality shine resplendent it apprehends and knows them and appears to possess reason, but when it inclines to that region which is mingled with darkness, the world of becoming and passing away, it opines only and its edge is blunted, and it shifts its opinions hither and thither, and again seems as if it lacked reason - Plato
  • Wat is het peripatetisch principe?
    Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensu (“niets is in het intellect dat zich niet eerst in de zintuigen bevond”)
  • Waarom deed Aristoteles niet aan experimenteren?
    Door dingen te manipuleren (zeg een steen op te tillen), ging men tegen de natuur der dingen in en leerde men dus ook niets over die natuur
  • 1.1 The Invention of Writing

  • Wat zijn 3 karakteristieken van culturen zonder letterkunde?
    1. Ze weten hoe ze gebruiksvoorwerpen moeten maken, vuur, kunnen schuilen, eten verzamelen en dat hun vaardigheden niet gebaseerd zijn op hoe dingen werken, maar uit de praktijk komen.
    2. Vloeiendheid van kennis, door orale overdracht.
    3. Er is een grote collectie van mythes hoe de aarde is ontstaan e.d.
  • What are preliterate civilizations and what characterizes them?
    Preliterate civilizations are civilizations before writing.
    They are characterized by:
    1. 'Know-how' knowledge without theoretical knowledge;
    2. Fluidity of knowledge;
    3. Existence of a collection of myths in which human traits are project onto objects and events.
  • Wat is animisme?
    Het uitleggen van de werkingen van de wereld en het universum door menselijke karakteristieken.
  • What is animism?
    Animism is the explanation of the workings of the world and universe by means of spirits with human-like characteristics.
  • Wat is een logograaf?
    Een teken wat een gesproken woord representeert.
  • What is protowriting and how does it relate to the upcoming of writing systems?
    Protowritimng is these of symbols to represent entities without linguistic information linking them. This was the first type of language that appeared.
  • Wat is de scholastische studeermethode?
    Studenten moesten de tekst precies kennen zoals het er stond, ze werden niet aangespoord om verder te denken.
  • What does a writing system consist of?
    Pictograms: pictures that resemble what the represent.
    &
    Phonograms: signs to represent sounds of the spoken language.
  • Waarom staat er dubbel sapiens in homo sapiens sapiens?
    Sapiens sapiens betekent de mens die weet dat ie weet.
  • How does the use of phonograms contributed to the alphabetic writing system?
    The use of phonograms to represent phones (sounds in language) led to the use of alphabetic systems.
  • Wat is dé ontdekken van de prehistorie?
    Representatie > geld representeert waarde, afbeeldingen representeren dieren, schrift representeert spraak en kennis.

    Taal: in “De kat zit de muis achterna” representeert “de kat” Tom, “de muis” Jerry, en “zit achterna” dat Tom Jerry wil vangen
  • Why are written documents of importance?
    Written documents provide external memory records about knowledge available at a certain point in time which leads to the accumulation of knowledge.
  • Waardoor ontstonden er wetenschappers in de beschaving?
    De landbouw ging meer eten maken dan voor zichzelf alleen waardoor andere de tijd kregen om dingen te onderzoeken.
  • What is the scholastic method?
    The scholastic method is a study method in which students unquestioningly memories and recite texts that are thought to convey unchanging truths
  • Wat is het variantie principe?
    De wetenschap is grotendeels gebaseerd op de ontkenning van Panta Rhei, zwaartekracht heeft een bepaalde waarde.
  • Wat is nôus?
    Hoe weet je nou dat wanneer je nog een zwaan onder de regel "alle zwanen zijn wit" stopt, de waarheid behouden bliijft?
    Onfeilbare intellectuele capaciteit
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Summary 2:

  • Historical and conceptual issues in psychology
  • Marc Brysbaert, Kathy Rastle
  • 9780273718185 or 0273718185
  • 2009

Summary - Historical and conceptual issues in psychology

  • 1.1 The invention of writing

  • Preliterate civilisation
    Civilisation before writing was invented.
  • Animism
    Explanation of the workings of the world and the universe by means of spirits with human-like characteristics.
  • Pictogram
    An information-conveying sign that consists of a picture resembling the person, animal or object it represents.
  • Phonogram
    A sign that represents a sound or a syllable of spoken language: forms the basic of writing systems.
  • Logograph
    A sign representing a spoken word, which no longer has a physical resemblance to the word's meaning.
  • Scholastic method
    Study method in which students unquestioningly memorise and recite texts that are thought to convey unchanging truths.
  • Name 3 features of the preliterate civiliation.
    • Knowledge confined to 'know-how' without theoretical knowledge of the underlying principles.
    • Fluidity of knowledge.
    • Collection of myths and stories about the beginning of the universe (animism).
  • Why was the invention of writing so important?
    Written records form an external memory, which allows an accumulation of knowledge.
  • 1.2 The discovery of numbers

  • Place coding system
    System in which the meaning of a sign not only depends on its form but also on its position in a string: is used for instance in Arabic numerals.
  • Why were the number systems of the Greek and Romans suboptimal?
    Their notation did not assign a meaning to the place of the digits. (Such a place coding system was developed in india. This required the invention of a symbol for 0). 
  • 1.3 The Fertile Crescent

  • Fertile Crescent
    Region in the Middle East with a high level of civilisation around 3.000 BCE: included the Ancient Mesopotamian and the Ancient Egyptian civilisation.
  • Name the 2 civilisations in the Fertile Crescent, and their main contributions.
    • Ancient Mesopotamia: mathematics (algebra, astronomy, calendar).
    • Ancient Egypt: geometrical knowledge, calendar, hieroglyphs.
  • 1.4 The Greeks

  • Philosophy
    Critical reflection on the universe and human functioning: started in Ancient Greece.
  • Syllogism
    Argument consisting of three propositions: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion. The goal of logic is to determine which syllogisms lead to valid conclusions and which not.
  • Plato founded the Academy and Aristotle the Lyceum. With 2 other schools they educated students for centuries. Name the 2 other schools and were they emphasised on.
    • Stoa, which had an emphasis on self-control.
    • Garden of Epicurus, which emphasised the enjoyment of simple pleasures.
  • Under Alexander the Great, there was significant expansion and interaction with other cultures. To which culture did this led, and what signified this culture?
    Hellenistic culture (shift to Alexandria), Where knowledge became more mathematical and specialised.
  • 1.5 Developments from the roman empire to the end of the middle ages

  • Dark Ages
    Name given in the Renaissance to the Middle Ages, to refer to the lack of independent and scientific thinking in that age.
  • Name 2 features of the Ancient Romans.
    • Assimilated the Greek methods and knowledge.
    • Were more interested in technological advances than in philosophy.
  • name 2 features of the Byzantine Empire
    • Eastern part of the Roman Empire: capital Constantinople; lasted till 1453.
    • Preservation of the legacy of the Ancient Greeks.
  • Name 4 features of the Arab Empire.
    • Founded on Islam: Contained the Fertile Crescent.
    • Translation and exstension of the Greek works.
    • Particularly strong on medicine, astronomy, mathematics (algebra) and optics.
    • occupied most of Spain.
  • Name 3 features of Western Roman Empire.
    • Largest decline in scientific knowledge.
    • Catholic Church main preserver: not very science-orientated.
    • In the renaissance referred to as the 'Dark Ages'.
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What is zeitgeist?
Zeitgeist indicates that the time in history was right for a certain discovery; discovery did not originate from a single genius, but from a wider development leading to the discovery
What are the biases in history writing?
  • Centered on person rather than on zeitgeist
  • Matthew-effect: too much credit is given to a wall number of people;
  • Hindsight bias: facta are interpreted on the basis of what happend afterwards.
  • Ethnocentrism: too much attention is given to the contribution of the author's own group;
  • History writers often rely on summaries and interpretations made by other writers 
Why was the development of book printing so important?
It provided rapid and massive availability of reliable information.
What wat the Reformation?
The Reformation was the Protestant movement gains the Roman Chatolic Church which was important for the development of science, because it emphasized the need for education, critical thinking, hard work and worldly success.
What was the Renaissance?
The Renaissance was the cultural movement in the 14th to 17th century based on a rediscovery and imitation of the Classical Greek and Roman civilizations.
What caused problems in Aristotles work in the Renaissance?
1. He stated that the universe was eternal without beginning or end, which called the dependence of line on God into question.
2. He stated that the soul was unable to exist without the body.
What are the dark ages?
The dark ages where given in the Renaissance to the Middle Ages to refer to the lack of independent and scientific thinking.
What was a major difference between the Romans and Greeks?
Romans more interested in practical questions (compared to philosophical debates Greeks).
Which four schools where founded by the Ancient Greece?
1. Academy (Plato)
2. Lyceum (Aristotle)
3. Stoa
4. Garden of Epicurus 
What are the key ideas of Plato?
  • Realm of eternal never-changing ideal forms vs. Realm of ever-changing material reality -> we only perceive the shadows of the eternal realm.
  • Soul comes from the cosmos-soul and thus has knowledge of the perfect realm get acces to this by focusing on innate knowledge.
  • Rationalism: humans have innate knowledge that can be discovered through deductive reasoning, truth is based on thinking;
  • Soul consist of three parts:
    • Reason in the brain;
    • Sensation + emotion in the heart;
    • Appetite + lower passions in liver.