Summary History

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Summary - History

  • 1.1 Medicine stands still

  • What were 4 supernatural beliefs about disease?
    • Disease was a punishment from God for peoples sins
    • The cure was prayer and repentance
    • It was caused by demons and witches
    • Caused by evil spirits inside people and cured by exorcisms
  • What 3 influences did the church have on medieval medicine?
    • Encouraged the idea that disease is a punishment from God preventing people from trying to find cures 
    • Scholars had to study from the incorrect work of Galen as it fit with religious beliefs
    • Church outlawed dissection so doctors couldn't learn about human anatomy
  • What 3 ways was astrology used to diagnose disease?
    • Doctors owned an almanac calendar which included information about planets used to predict how there health was affected
    • Different star signs were thought to affect different parts of the body.
  • What was the Four Humours theory?
    • Hippocraties believed the body was made up if four fluids- blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
    • These were linked to the four seasons and four elements
    • Galen believed diseases could be treated using opposites to throw the humours back into balanced 
  • What was the miasma theory?
    • Bad air (human waste and dead bodies) causes disease when someone breathes it in.
    • It originated in Greece and Rome and was incorporated by Galen into the Four humour theory
    • It lasted until 1860 when it was replaced by the Germ Theory.
  • How were Hippocrates and Galen influential?
    • The church regarded their work as the absolute truth
    • They were taught for centuries after their death, but Galen only dissected animals so ideas about anatomy were very wrong
    • The hippocratic oath is still used today and it is the belief that doctors should observe patients as they treat them 
  • What 11 ways did people use to treat disease?
    • Praying
    • Pilgrimages 
    • Flagellants (public self-whipping)
    • astrology
    • bloodletting - leeches
    • purging - laxatives 
    • purifying air- posies and oranges
    • remedies from apothecaries 
    • physicians 
    • public hospitals 
    • barber surgeons 
  • What were hospitals used for?
    • Run by the church 
    • few public hospitals 
    • care for sick and elderly, not cure illness 
    • More hygenic
  • What progress was made in surgery?
    • Hugh of Luca and his son began dressing wounds with bandages soaked in wine to clean and prevent infection 
    • They realised pus wasn't a healthy sign 
    • John Ardene developed a deadly anaesthetic which could be used in controlled dosages
  • What was health like in towns?
    • Houses were made of wood and crammed together- overcrowding and fires
    • No clean water supplies or sewage systems
    • Toxic waste thrown into drinking rivers
    • In the 13th century a clean water channel was built
    • In 1388 the government ordered town authorities to keep the streets free of waster
  • What was health like in monasteries?
    • Wealthy so could afford to build infrastructure and waterways to keep water clean 
    • populations were small with one leader who had the power to enforce rules
  • What was the black death?
    Bubonic plague- spread by flea bites from rats. This caused headaches, high temperatures and pus-filled swellings

    Pneumonic plague- airborne. attacked the lungs making it painful to breathe and victims cough up blood.
  • What did people think caused the Black death?
    • Judgment from God
    • Humour imbalances
    • miasma
  • How did local governments try to prevent the spread of the plague?
    • New cemeteries 
    • Gloucester shut itself off- unsuccessful
    • January 1349 King Edward III closed parliament 
  • How did the Black death cause social change?
    • far fewer workers meaning people could demand higher wages 
    • Cost of land decreased 
    • Laws were created such as 1349 ordinance of labourers stopping peasants from moving around the country
    • Helped caused the peasants revolt, collapsing the feudal system 
  • 1.2 The beginnings of change

  • What was the renaissance? (4)
    1. Rediscovery of Ancient works of Hippocrates, Galen and Avicenna.
    2. More interest in science including direct observation and experimentation.
    3. New books placed importance on anatomy and dissection encouraging people to experiment.
    4. People questioned Galen and the church had less control
  • Who was Vesalius?
    A medical professor at Padua University
  • What did Vesalius believe?
    Succesful surgery would only be possible if doctors had a possible if doctors had a proper understanding of anatomy
  • What did Vesalius do? (4)
    1. Wrote books on anatomy "Fabric of Human Body" allowing British doctors to read about anatomy 
    2. Performed dissections on executed criminals.
    3. Discovered there was no holes in septum of heart (corrected Galen).
    4. Encouraged people to question Galen and dissection.
  • Who was Harvey?
    A British doctor who discovered circulation of the blood.
  • What did Harvey do? (2)
    1. Observed living animal hearts and applied his findings to humans.
    2. Proved Galens theory of two types of blood wrong.
  • Who was Paré?

    A french barber/army surgeon who improved surgical techniques
  • What did Paré do? (3)
    1. Realised burning wounds and pouring hot oil did more harm than good and developed a ointment to treat gunshot wounds.
    2. Developed amputation by tying off vessels with ligatures rather than cauterisation.
    3. Published his ideas for other surgeons to read.
  • How was medicine in the renaissance? (4)
    1. People still agreed with Galen as he agreed with the church
    2. People thought the Kings touch could heal which is superstition
    3. Doctors were very expensive so people use apocaries, barber surgeons and wise women.
    4. Quacks sold fake harmful medicines 
  • What are the similarities between the Great Plague and the Black Death? (3)
    1. Many treatments were based on magic, religion and superstition, e.g. lucky charms, prayers and fasting.
    2. Bloodletting still used
    3. Miasma so people used posies. 
  • What are the differences between the Great Plague and the Black death? (3)
    1. victims were quarantined (isolated) to stop them passing the disease and a red cross was painted on their door.
    2. Overcrowded places (theatres) were closed.
    3. Mass graves of victims were made away from houses. 
  • What do people believe help wipe the plague out?
    The Great fire of London was believed to have sterilised the town.
  • How did doctors training and knowledge begin to improve? (4)
    1. Doctors trained at the college of physicians in 1518 which separated them from quack doctors. 
    2. New weapons meant army surgeons had to quickly find new remedies.
    3. New drugs from trade as treatments.
    4. More dissections for anatomy information. 
  • Why did surgeons become more important?
    There were professional and barber surgeons in the middle ages who generally weren't respected compared to doctors however in the 1800 their status improved and the London college of surgeons was opened to set training standards.
  • Who was John Hunter?
    A well known surgeon and scientist in the 1800s
  • What did John Hunter do? (3)
    1. He was an army surgeon with great knowledge of anatomy.
    2. Introduced new way to treat an aneurysm.
    3. Animal testing when doing his many experiments.
  • What changed about hospitals? (4)
    1. Due to dissolution many hospitals were shut down 
    2. Charity hospitals funded by the rick were set up to treat disease and deliver children.
    3. People who recovered quickly and worked hard were more likely to be admitted because of lack of space .
    4. Hospitals were used as training schools 
  • Who was Florence Nightingale?
    A nurse in the 19th century who became a professional and disciplined work.
  • What did Florence Nightingale do? (4)
    1. She was a nurse in the Crimean war despite the fact the army opposed nurses.
    2. She ensured all wars were hygienic, water supplies were adequate and patients were fed.
    3. Nightingales practices were enforced in hospitals in Britain due to her published book.
    4. The public raised money to help her train nurses in her own school. 
  • Previous to Jenner, what was used to treat small pox?
    Inoculation- Lady Montagu learned that making a cut in a patients arm and soaking it in pus taken from the swelling of someone who already had a mild form of small pox cured it however some died.
  • What did Jenner discover? (3)
    1. He discovered people who got cowpox didn't get small pox.
    2. He tested his theory on James Phipps in 1796 and proved his link.
    3. He published his findings and named it vaccination.
  • What opposition did Jenner face? (3)
    1.  People worried about cowpox and saw it as a threat to livelihood 
    2. Some deaths occurred in Jenner's hospital 
    3. People didn't like the government telling them what to do when it became compulsory.
  • What did he get for his discovery? (2)
    1. £30,000 to open a vaccination clinic.
    2. Made compulsory 
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Results Of The Terror-Insane Stalin Grabs All Power
  1. Russification
  2. Orthodox Church attacked 
  3. Twenty million dead, many more imprisoned
  4. Terror
  5. Industry
  6. Stalin cult
  7. Gulag 
  8. Army and navy weakened 
  9. Purges.
Why Unneeded Purgers?
  1. Whole Country- country needs to be united with him as a strong leader
  2. Urgency- Stalin believed Russia and 10 years to catch up with the western world before Germany invaded 
  3. Paranoia- Stalin became increasingly paranoid and power-mad, in 1935 his wife killed herself 
How did Stalin use terror? (Stalin Takes Total Control)
  1. Secret police
  2. The first purges- included anybody who opposed industrialisation and collectivisation 
  3. The great purges- included: political opponents (Show trials- always pleaded guilty to save family), The Army, The Church, Ethnic Groups and Ordinary people 
  4. Cult of personality- pictures(manipulated), statues, continuous praise, places named after him, children taught from young ages, history books changed to make Stalin the Hero 
What were the failures of the 5 year plans? (3)
  1. Poorly organised 
  2. appalling human cost: discipline, secret police, slave, labour camps, accidents, few consumer goods, poor housing, low wages, no human rights)qqqw
  3. Some historians claim the Tsar had done the 'spadework' in setting up the basework for industrialisation and it would of happened anyway regardless of Stalin
What were the successes of the 5 year plans? (3)
  1. The USSR was turned into a modern state
  2. There was a genuine Communist enthusiasm among the young 
  3. There were huge achievements in the following areas: new cities, hydroelectric power, transport, Moscow underground, farm machinery, electricity, coal , steel, fertilisers, plastic, no unemployment, medicine and education. 
How did Stalin achieve the 5 Year Plans? (9)
  1. Plans were drawn up by GOSPLAN
  2. Targets were set for EVERYONE
  3. Foreign experts and engineers were called in
  4. Workers were bombarded with propaganda
  5. Workers were fined if they didn't meet their targets but rewarded if they exceeded 
  6. After the first 5 year plan revealed a shortage of workers women were attracted to work by new day car centres so mothers could work
  7. For big engineering projects such as dams or canals slave labour was used 
  8. There was a concentration on heavy industry at the expense of consumer goods or good housing
  9. Stalin attacked the Muslim faith as he thought it was holding back industrialisation. 
What were the reasons for the 5 year plans?
  1. Many regions of the USSR were backward
  2. Stalin believed that the USSR would become strong enough to survive and outstrip the capitalist countries
  3. He believed Germany would invade
  4. The 5 year plans were very useful propaganda 
What were the failures of collectivisation?(Poor Foolish Kulaks)
Production- fell
Famine- millions died
Kulaks- eliminated
What were the Successes of collectivisation? (Quite Modern Government Technology Encourages Collectivisation)
  1. Quarter of a million kolkhoz
  2. More modern 
  3. Grain
  4. Town workers 
  5. End of nobles
  6. Communists control completely 
Why did Stalin Collectivise (Six Factors Now To Collectivise Kolkhoz)

  1. Soviet agriculture was backward- old-fashioned, inefficient, no machinery, too small 
  2. Food was needed for workers in towns 
  3. NEP was not working- 20 million tons short of grain to feed towns 
  4. Town workers were needed
  5. Cash crops were needed
  6. Kulaks opposed communism