Summary HRD Colleges

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This is the summary of the book "HRD Colleges". The author(s) of the book is/are Nale. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - HRD Colleges

  • 1 Hoofdstuk 1+2

  • What is the definition of Human Resource Development?
    a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization 
    to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to 
    meet current and future job demands.

  • What is at the core of all HRD efforts?
  • What are three goals of HRD?
    1. assist employees and organizations in obtaining their goals
    2. improve organizational performance
    3. effort to change employee behavior
  • What are three HRM functions?
    1. obtaining employees
    2. maintaining employees
    3. Developing employees --> HRD
  • What are the primary HRD functions?
    1. training & development
    2. organizational development
    3. career development
  • How can you improve organizational effectiveness?
    1. solving current problems
    2. preventing anticipated problems
    3. targeted participant recruitment: Including as participants those 
    individuals and units that can benefit most
  • Changing or improving employees is done with KSA's, what does this mean?
  • What is training?
    provide skills & knowledge to job or task
  • What is development?
    prepares for future employment needs
  • What are 2 features of T&D?
    - start when employee joins a organization
    - continue throughout employment career
  • What are specific T&D activities?
    - Employee orientation 
    - Skills and technical training 
    - Coaching 
    - Counseling 

  • What is coaching?

    • Helping employees learn unit’s values and norms 
    • Helping employees establish working relationships 
    • Helping employees learn how to function in their jobs
  • What is counseling?
    Helping employees deal with personal problems, e.g: 
    > Substance abuse 
    > Stress management 
    > Smoking cessation 
    > Fitness, nutrition, weight management
  • Why need managers and supervisors KSA's?
    To be effective

  • Examples of Management T&D: 
    > Supervisory training 
    > Job rotation 
    > Seminars 
    > College/university courses
  • What is organizational development?
    The process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and its 
    employees through planned interventions that apply behavioral science 
    > Macro changes affecting entire organization 
    > Micro changes affecting individuals, small groups & teams 

  • What is the role of HRD in Organizational Development?
    They work as change agent to facilitate the change process
  • What is career development?
    An ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of 
    stages, each characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes 
    and tasks 

  • What is career planning?
    Assessing individuals skills and abilities in order to 
    establish a realistic career plan
  • What is career management?
    Taking necessary steps to achieve that plan
  • What are the roles of supervisors in HRD?
    - HRD implementation
    - Orienttion
    - Training
    - Coaching
    - Career Development
    - Identifying training needs
  • What is the framework for the HRD process?
    1. Needs assessment
    2. Design
    3. Implementation
    4. Evaluation
  • What are the steps in needs assessment? (figure)
    assess needs and prioritize needs
  • What are the steps in Design? (figure)
    Define objectives, develop lesson plan, develop /acquire needs, select trainer/leader, select methods and techniques. schedule the program/ intervention 
  • What is the step in Implementation? (figure)
    Deliver the HRD programme/intervention
  • What are the steps in Evaluation? (figure)
    Select evaluation criteria, determine evaluation design, conduct evaluation of program or intervention, interpret the results
  • Of which parts consists needs assessment? 
    Establish priorities for expending HRD resources 
    Define specific training and HRD objectives 
    Establish evaluation criteria
  • What steps has the design phase?
     Define objectives 
     Develop lesson plan 
     Develop/acquire materials 
     Select trainer/leader 
     Select methods/techniques 
     Scheduling 

  • What steps has the implementation phase?
     Deliver program as designed 
     Create an atmosphere that promotes learning 
     Resolve emergent problems as they occur
  • What steps has the evaluation phase?
     Must be able to quantify results of trainings and determine their impact on 
    the “bottom line” 
     Evaluate participant reactions 
     Evaluate how much was learned 
     Evaluate transferability of learning to workplace 
     Evaluate if program contributes to organization’s effectiveness
  • What is the use of evaluation data?
    Whether or not to continue use of program or vendor 
    Whether or not to offer in the future 
    Budgeting and resource allocation 
    Using alternative methods to solving problem(s) 

  • What are the major categories of employee behaviour
     Individual performance is multidimensional 
     Most HRD activities focus on “Task Performance” 
            Behaviors central to doing one’s job 
     Organizational citizenship behaviors: 
            Critical to organizational effectiveness 
            Not specific to a particular task 
  • What are major forces that drive employee behaviour?
    External forces: 
     Outside the organization 
          State of economy/employment rate 
     Inside the work environment 
         Leadership, supervisors 
         Co-workers 
         Outcomes of performance

    Internal Forces: 
     Within employee 
         Motivation 
         Knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) 
  • What are the influences of supervisors?
    Self-fulfilling prophecy: 
    > Supervisor's expectations can influence workers behavior (Pygmalion 
    > Non-coercive influence to direct and coordinate the activities of a group 
    toward accomplishing a goal 

  • What are the influences of co-workers?
      Coworkers control some of the outcomes and therefore some of the 
     They may offer or withhold friendship and recognition 
     Norms set the guidelines for behavior in the group 
     Group dynamics influence the way an employee behaves when 
    interacting with a group 

  • what are factors in the external environment invovled with employee behaviour?
    economic conditions, technological changes, labor market conditions, law and regulations, labor unions
  • What is the basic assumption of the social learning theory?
    Outcome and self-efficacy expectations affect individual 
  • What is the outcome expectation of the social learning theory?
    A person’s belief that performing a given behavior 
    will lead to a given outcome 

  • What is self efficiacy?
    A person’s judgment of his/her capabilities to organize and 
    execute courses of action required to attain designated types of 

  • A person’s self-efficacy expectations will determine: 
     whether a behavior will be performed, 
     how much effort will be spent, and 
     how long he/she will continue to perform the behavior
  • What is the basic assumption of the equity theory?
    Motivation is strongly influenced by 
    1. People’s desire to be treated fairly and 
    2. Perceptions about whether they have been treated fairly
  • Equity theory:

     People develop beliefs about what is fair for them to receive in exchange 
    for the contributions that they make to the organization 
     People determine fairness by comparing their relevant returns and 
    contributions to those of others 
     People who believe they have been treated unfairly (called inequity) will 
    experience tension, and they will be motivated to find ways to reduce it
  • What are different ways to reduce feelings of inequity?
     Cognitively distorting views of contributions or rewards (“She must be 
    smarter than I thought.”) 
     Influencing the perceived rival to change his or her contributions or 
    rewards (e.g., convincing the person to be less productive) 
     Changing one’s own contributions or rewards (either working harder or 
    contributing less) 
     Comparing oneself to a different person leaving the situation (requesting 
    a transfer or quitting)
  • What is the behavioural intentions model?
    beliefs about behaviour/ outcome relationship leids to attitude towards behaviour + beliefs about group/society norms leads to perception of norms. These two relations lead to intentions which leads to behaviour, moderated by perceived situational or internal constraints. 
  • Summary: Employee behaviour and HRD

    HRD interventions aim to change employee behavior 
    --> HRD practitioners need to understand factors that influence employee 
    behavior in the workplace

    Factors that influence employee behavior: 
    - External environment factors (e.g., economy, government, 
    - Work environment factors (e.g., supervisor, organization, co-workers)
    - Internal factors (e.g., motivation, ability, attitudes)

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Calculate the return on investment (ROI) 
- training costs 1500€ per participant, 400 professors participated = 600 000
- Improved skills (you cannot put money on it), but the students' enrollment number can increase.
-> 2000 more students -> 2000€ per new student 
= 4 000 000€
- Teachers' sick leave: difference of 5 ays annually per teacher, 100€ per sick day -> 5 x 400 (professors) = 2000
-> 2000 x 100 = 200 000€

Total savings = 200 000 + 4 000 000 = 4,200,000

ROI = 4,200,000/600,000 = 7 -> and 7 > 1 => benefits accrue!:) 
Team 12H3: Diversity training will have stronger beneficial effects on affective- based outcomes, when trainee motivation is high tan when it is low. Was it supported?
Team 12H2: Diversity training that provides greater opportunity for social interaction will have stronger beneficial effects on affective-based outcomes, relative to training providing less opportunity for social interaction. Was it supported?
Team 13H1: Diversity training will have stronger effects on cognitive-based and skill-based outcomes, relative to affective-based outcomes. Was it supported?
Team 128. Diversity training outcomes
reactions include: trainees' perceptions of trainer's competence, credibility, and experience & usefulness of training

Trainings focussing on similarities instead of differences are more effective at resolving conflicts. 
Team 127. Trainee characteristics
Paradox: trainees with more diversity training experience benefited from a racially homogenous training group. 
Trainees from collectivistic countries had a preference toward trainers whose cultural background matched their own. 

trainees with high levels of cultural competence were more likely to com to the trainings. 
Team 126. Training instructions: many vs one method
methods are e.g.: role play, lectures, experiential exercises, discussion etc. 
-> combination is favored!
Team 125. Training types: awareness & behavior-based
awareness: people share experiences -> promoting self-awareness
behavior-based: monitoring own actions. Usually used in combination with awareness-based trainings. 
Team 124. Training focus: group-specific vs inclusive
Trainings that focus on inclusiveness are better accepted by all trainees!
Team 123. Training attendance requirements: mandatory or voluntary
Divided viewpoint! 
- mandatory trainings: good since everybody is included
- voluntary: training should emphasize the value of diversity & how to benefit from it