Summary HRD Colleges

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This is the summary of the book "HRD Colleges". The author(s) of the book is/are Nale. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - HRD Colleges

  • 1 Hoofdstuk 1+2

  • What is the definition of Human Resource Development?
    a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization 
    to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to 
    meet current and future job demands.

  • What is at the core of all HRD efforts?
    learning
  • What are three goals of HRD?
    1. assist employees and organizations in obtaining their goals
    2. improve organizational performance
    3. effort to change employee behavior
  • What are three HRM functions?
    1. obtaining employees
    2. maintaining employees
    3. Developing employees --> HRD
  • What are the primary HRD functions?
    1. training & development
    2. organizational development
    3. career development
  • How can you improve organizational effectiveness?
    1. solving current problems
    2. preventing anticipated problems
    3. targeted participant recruitment: Including as participants those 
    individuals and units that can benefit most

  • Goals of HRDHow can you improve organizational effectiveness?
    1. solving current problems (e.g. an increase in customer complaints)
    2. preventing anticipated problems (e.g. a shortage of skilled technicians)
    3. targeted participant recruitment: Including as participants those 
    individuals and units that can benefit most
  • Changing or improving employees is done with KSA's, what does this mean?
    Knowledgde
    Skills
    Abilities

  • Training &Development (T&D)
    Changing or improving employees is done with KSA's, what does this mean?
    Knowledgde
    Skills
    Abilities
  • What is training?
    provide skills & knowledge to job or task
  • What is development?
    prepares for future employment needs
  • What are 2 features of T&D?
    - start when employee joins a organization
    - continue throughout employment career
  • When should T&D activities be applied?
    - start when employee joins a organization
    - continue throughout employment career
  • What are specific T&D activities?
    - Employee orientation 
    - Skills and technical training 
    - Coaching 
    - Counseling 

  • What are specific T&D activities? (4)
    - Employee orientation 
    - Skills and technical training 
    - Coaching 
    - Counseling 

  • What is coaching?

    • Helping employees learn unit’s values and norms 
    • Helping employees establish working relationships 
    • Helping employees learn how to function in their jobs
  • What is counseling?
    Helping employees deal with personal problems, e.g: 
    > Substance abuse 
    > Stress management 
    > Smoking cessation 
    > Fitness, nutrition, weight management
  • Why need managers and supervisors KSA's?
    To be effective
  • Why do managers and supervisors need KSA's (knowledge, skills, abilities)?
    To be effective

  • Examples of Management T&D: 
    > Supervisory training 
    > Job rotation 
    > Seminars 
    > College/university courses
  • What is organizational development?
    The process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and its 
    employees through planned interventions that apply behavioral science 
    concepts 
    > Macro changes affecting entire organization 
    > Micro changes affecting individuals, small groups & teams 

  • What is the role of HRD in Organizational Development?
    They work as change agent to facilitate the change process
  • What is the role of HRD professional in Organizational Development?
    They work as "change agent" to facilitate the change process
  • What is career development?
    An ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of 
    stages, each characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes 
    and tasks 

  • What is career planning?
    Assessing individuals skills and abilities in order to 
    establish a realistic career plan
  • Career Development - What is career planning?
    Assessing individuals skills and abilities in order to 
    establish a realistic career plan
  • What is career management?
    Taking necessary steps to achieve that plan
  • Career Development - What is career management?
    Taking necessary steps to achieve that plan
  • What are the roles of supervisors in HRD?
    - HRD implementation
    - Orienttion
    - Training
    - Coaching
    - Career Development
    - Identifying training needs
  • What is the framework for the HRD process?
    1. Needs assessment
    2. Design
    3. Implementation
    4. Evaluation
  • What are the steps in needs assessment? (figure)
    assess needs and prioritize needs
  • What are the steps in Design? (figure)
    Define objectives, develop lesson plan, develop /acquire needs, select trainer/leader, select methods and techniques. schedule the program/ intervention 
  • Training & HRD Process ModelWhat are the steps in Design? (figure)
    Define objectives, develop lesson plan, develop /acquire materials, select trainer/leader, select methods and techniques, schedule the program/ intervention 
  • What is the step in Implementation? (figure)
    Deliver the HRD programme/intervention
  • What are the steps in Evaluation? (figure)
    Select evaluation criteria, determine evaluation design, conduct evaluation of program or intervention, interpret the results
  • What are the steps of Evaluation? (figure)
    Select evaluation criteria, determine evaluation design, conduct evaluation of program or intervention, interpret the results
  • Of which parts consists needs assessment? 
    Establish priorities for expending HRD resources 
    Define specific training and HRD objectives 
    Establish evaluation criteria
  • What steps has the design phase?
     Define objectives 
     Develop lesson plan 
     Develop/acquire materials 
     Select trainer/leader 
     Select methods/techniques 
     Scheduling 

  • What steps has the implementation phase?
     Deliver program as designed 
     Create an atmosphere that promotes learning 
     Resolve emergent problems as they occur
  • What steps has the evaluation phase?
     Must be able to quantify results of trainings and determine their impact on 
    the “bottom line” 
     Evaluate participant reactions 
     Evaluate how much was learned 
     Evaluate transferability of learning to workplace 
     Evaluate if program contributes to organization’s effectiveness
  • What is the use of evaluation data?
    Whether or not to continue use of program or vendor 
    Whether or not to offer in the future 
    Budgeting and resource allocation 
    Using alternative methods to solving problem(s) 

  • What are the major categories of employee behaviour
     Individual performance is multidimensional 
     
     Most HRD activities focus on “Task Performance” 
            Behaviors central to doing one’s job 
     
     Organizational citizenship behaviors: 
            Critical to organizational effectiveness 
            Not specific to a particular task 
  • What are major forces that drive employee behaviour?
    External forces: 
     Outside the organization 
          State of economy/employment rate 
     Inside the work environment 
         Leadership, supervisors 
         Co-workers 
         Outcomes of performance

    Internal Forces: 
     Within employee 
         Motivation 
         Knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) 
  • What are the influences of supervisors?
    Self-fulfilling prophecy: 
    > Supervisor's expectations can influence workers behavior (Pygmalion 
    effect) 
     
    Leadership: 
    > Non-coercive influence to direct and coordinate the activities of a group 
    toward accomplishing a goal 

  • What are the influences of co-workers?
      Coworkers control some of the outcomes and therefore some of the 
    behavior 
     
     They may offer or withhold friendship and recognition 
     
     Norms set the guidelines for behavior in the group 
     
     Group dynamics influence the way an employee behaves when 
    interacting with a group 

  • what are factors in the external environment invovled with employee behaviour?
    economic conditions, technological changes, labor market conditions, law and regulations, labor unions
  • What is the basic assumption of the social learning theory?
    Outcome and self-efficacy expectations affect individual 
    performance
  • What is the outcome expectation of the social learning theory?
    A person’s belief that performing a given behavior 
    will lead to a given outcome 

  • What is self efficiacy?
    A person’s judgment of his/her capabilities to organize and 
    execute courses of action required to attain designated types of 
    performances 


  • A person’s self-efficacy expectations will determine: 
     whether a behavior will be performed, 
     how much effort will be spent, and 
     how long he/she will continue to perform the behavior
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Calculate the return on investment (ROI) 
- training costs 1500€ per participant, 400 professors participated = 600 000
- Improved skills (you cannot put money on it), but the students' enrollment number can increase.
-> 2000 more students -> 2000€ per new student 
= 4 000 000€
- Teachers' sick leave: difference of 5 ays annually per teacher, 100€ per sick day -> 5 x 400 (professors) = 2000
-> 2000 x 100 = 200 000€

Total savings = 200 000 + 4 000 000 = 4,200,000

ROI = 4,200,000/600,000 = 7 -> and 7 > 1 => benefits accrue!:) 
Team 12H3: Diversity training will have stronger beneficial effects on affective- based outcomes, when trainee motivation is high tan when it is low. Was it supported?
Yes!
Team 12H2: Diversity training that provides greater opportunity for social interaction will have stronger beneficial effects on affective-based outcomes, relative to training providing less opportunity for social interaction. Was it supported?
Yes!
Team 13H1: Diversity training will have stronger effects on cognitive-based and skill-based outcomes, relative to affective-based outcomes. Was it supported?
Yes!
Team 128. Diversity training outcomes
reactions include: trainees' perceptions of trainer's competence, credibility, and experience & usefulness of training

Trainings focussing on similarities instead of differences are more effective at resolving conflicts. 
Team 127. Trainee characteristics
Paradox: trainees with more diversity training experience benefited from a racially homogenous training group. 
Trainees from collectivistic countries had a preference toward trainers whose cultural background matched their own. 

trainees with high levels of cultural competence were more likely to com to the trainings. 
Team 126. Training instructions: many vs one method
methods are e.g.: role play, lectures, experiential exercises, discussion etc. 
-> combination is favored!
Team 125. Training types: awareness & behavior-based
awareness: people share experiences -> promoting self-awareness
behavior-based: monitoring own actions. Usually used in combination with awareness-based trainings. 
Team 124. Training focus: group-specific vs inclusive
Trainings that focus on inclusiveness are better accepted by all trainees!
Team 123. Training attendance requirements: mandatory or voluntary
Divided viewpoint! 
- mandatory trainings: good since everybody is included
- voluntary: training should emphasize the value of diversity & how to benefit from it