Summary Human Anatomy

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ISBN-10 0073403709 ISBN-13 9780073403700
198 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Human Anatomy". The author(s) of the book is/are Kenneth Saladin. The ISBN of the book is 9780073403700 or 0073403709. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Human Anatomy

  • 1 Introduction to Anatomy

  • Sonogrphy
    -second oldest form of imaging
    -most accepted
    -no harmful effects that x-rays produce
        device, against skin, high frequency ultrasound waves
        receives sounds back from organs

    -advantages: mobile, convenient, no harmful radiation
    -disadvantages: no a very sharp picture
  • Computed Tomography
    -"CT scan"
    -more sophisticated x-ray application
    -low intensity
    -image slice very thin, compilation of many produces 3-D image
    -much sharper than traditional X-ray
    -identifies: tumors, aneurysms, cerebral hemorrhages, kidney stones, other abnormalities
  • Radiography
    -dates back to 1895
    -over 50% of time used for medical imaging
    -diagnoses fractures, dentistry, examination of chest
    -hollow organs filled w/radiopaque to produce X-ray image
    -used for ANGIOGRAPHY: examination of blood vessels
  • Radiological Anatomy
    -view inside body w/o surgery
    -medical imaging
    -clinical purposes
    -radiologists, use ionizing radiation or Xrays or POSITRONS
  • Human Anatomy (Definition)
    -study of structural basis of body function
  • Functional Morphology
    -describes functional reasons behind organs
  • Modern Anatomy Dates in Time
    -First idealized and explored in the 16th century
    -credit: Andreas Vesalivs
  • Surface Anatomy
    -external body of structure
  • Regional Anatomy
    -study of multiple organ systems at once
    -approach most commonly used in schools
  • Radiologic Anatomy
    -study of internal structure
  • Histopathology
    -microscopic examination of tissues
    -use for searching for signs of disease
  • Systemic Anatomy
    -study of one organ system at a time
  • Comparative Anatomy
    -type of study, observing more than one species
    -compare, examine, structural similarities and differences
    -analyze evolutionary trends
  • Methods of Studying Anatomy
    -INSPECTION: surface appearance
    -PALPATION: "hands on"     "palpating swollen lymph node"
    -AUSCULTATION: listening, natural sounds made by the body
    -PERCUSSION: "taps"   check for abnormal resistance by listening to emitted sounds for abnormalities (pockets of fluid, air, scar tissue)   
    -DISSECTION: cut, separate tissues, reveals relationships between tissues
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    -superior to CT for visualizing soft tissues
    -lays in tube that produces large magnetic field
    -hydrogen atoms in tissues align themselves with the field
    -then radio wave emitter activated, hydrogen atoms react abruptly
    -hydrogen atoms absorb additional energy and align in different direction
    -once radio waves are turned off, hydrogen atoms instantly realign to magnetic field, and their excess energy is released and analyzed in order to determine the specific type of issue      
    -DISADVANTAGE: patient must lie completely still in enclosed space for about 45 minutes for one region, up to 90 minutes for full body scan
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
    -assesses the metabolic state of tissue to distinguish which tissues are most active at a given moment
    -inject radioactively labeled glucose, emitting positrons
    -shows extent of tissue death from a heart attack
    -dead tissue absorbs no glucose so appears dark in image
  • Hierarchy of Human Anatomy
    -ORGANISM: single, complete individual capable of acting seperately from other individuals
    -ORGAN SYSTEMS: group of organs that carries out a basic function 
    -ORGANS: structure, definite anatomical boundries, composed of 2 or more tissue types working together
    -TISSUES: mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ, performs specific function
    -CELLS: smallest units of organisms considered to be alive, enclosed plasma membrane composed of lipids and protein, usually one nucleus, an organelle that contains DNA
    -ORGANELLES: microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions, include the nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, centrioles, and others
    -MOLECULES: comprises material that forms organelles, particles of at least two atoms joined by chemical bond
    -ATOMS: particles joined by chemical bond that makeup molecules
  • Body Systems
    -11 organ systems in human body
    -plus immune system, better described as population of cells that inhabit multiple organs rather than as an organ system
  • Integumentary System
    -principle organs: skin hair nails
    -protects, water retention
  • Skeletal System
    -principle organs: bones, cartilages, ligaments
    -support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  • Muscular System
    -principle organs: skeletal muscles
    -movement, stability, communication, heat production, control of bodily openings
  • Lymphatic System
    -principle organs: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
    -recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense against disease
  • Respiratory System
    -principle organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi,  lungs
    -absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base balance, speech
  • Urinary System
    -principle organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    -elimination of wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressure, stimulation of red blood cell formation, control of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, detoxification
  • Nervous System
    -principle organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
    -rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control and sensation
  • Endocrine System
    -principle organs: pituitary gland, pineal gland thyroid gland, parathyroid glad, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries
    -hormone production, internal chemical communication and coordination
  • Circulatory System
    -principle organs: heart, blood vessels
    -distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat, immune cells, and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  • Digestive System
    -principle organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
    - nutrient breakdown and absorption, liver functions including metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. disposal of drugs, toxins, and hormones, cleansing of blood
  • Male Reproductive System
    -principle organs: testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate glands, penis
    -production and delivery of sperm, secretion of sex hormones
  • Female Reproductive System
    -principle organs: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
    -production of eggs, site of fertilization and fetal development, fetal nourishment, brith, lactation, secretion of sex hormones
  • Supinated
    -forearm is supinated when the palms face up or anteriorly
  • Pronated
    -forearm is pronated when they face down or posteriorly
  • Prone
    -person lying face down
  • Supine
    -person lying face up
  • Ipsilateral
    -on the same side of the body (left or right)
  • Contralateral
    -on opposite sides of the body (left and right)
  • Dorsum
    -upper surface of the foot
    -back of hand
  • Locations of Abdominal Structures
    -Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ):
    -Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
    -Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ): 
    -Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ):
  • Regions of the Abdominus
    -Epigastric region (top third, in between RUQ and LUQ
    -umbilical region (middle, top half of region in between RUQ and LUQ, bottom half of region in between RLQ and LLQ)
    -hypogastric region (bottom third abdomen, in between RLQ and LLQ)
  • Lesser Regions of the Abdominus
    -hypochondriac region: left and right of epigastric region
    -lumbar region: left and right of umbilical region
    -inguinal region: left and right of hypogastric region
  • Terms of Dividing Planes for Abdominus
    -midclavicular line: Runs superior and inferior the hypochondriac, lumbar, and inguinal region (runs through midpoint of clavical)
    -subcoastal line: runs medial and lateral directly beneath the epigastric region (connects inferior borders of the lowest costal cartilages)
    -intertubicular line: runs medial and lateral directly superior the hypogastric region (passes from left to right betwen the tubercles of the hip bones)
  • Pericardium
    -two layered serous membrane that wraps around the heart
    -inner layer of pericardium (VISCERAL) forms the surface of the heart itself
    -outer layer called PARIETAL pericardium, seperated from the visceral pericardium by a space called the PERICARDIAL CAVITY, which is lubricated by a thin film of PERICARDIAL FLUID
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Computed Tomography
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Sonogrphy
1
Radiography
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Radiological Anatomy
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