Summary Human Anatomy

ISBN-10 0073403709 ISBN-13 9780073403700
198 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Human Anatomy". The author(s) of the book is/are Kenneth Saladin. The ISBN of the book is 9780073403700 or 0073403709. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Human Anatomy

  • 1 Introduction to Anatomy

  • Sonogrphy
    -second oldest form of imaging
    -most accepted
    -no harmful effects that x-rays produce
        device, against skin, high frequency ultrasound waves
        receives sounds back from organs

    -advantages: mobile, convenient, no harmful radiation
    -disadvantages: no a very sharp picture
  • Computed Tomography
    -"CT scan"
    -more sophisticated x-ray application
    -low intensity
    -image slice very thin, compilation of many produces 3-D image
    -much sharper than traditional X-ray
    -identifies: tumors, aneurysms, cerebral hemorrhages, kidney stones, other abnormalities
  • Radiography
    -dates back to 1895
    -over 50% of time used for medical imaging
    -diagnoses fractures, dentistry, examination of chest
    -hollow organs filled w/radiopaque to produce X-ray image
    -used for ANGIOGRAPHY: examination of blood vessels
  • Radiological Anatomy
    -view inside body w/o surgery
    -medical imaging
    -clinical purposes
    -radiologists, use ionizing radiation or Xrays or POSITRONS
  • Human Anatomy (Definition)
    -study of structural basis of body function
  • Functional Morphology
    -describes functional reasons behind organs
  • Modern Anatomy Dates in Time
    -First idealized and explored in the 16th century
    -credit: Andreas Vesalivs
  • Surface Anatomy
    -external body of structure
  • Regional Anatomy
    -study of multiple organ systems at once
    -approach most commonly used in schools
  • Radiologic Anatomy
    -study of internal structure
  • Histopathology
    -microscopic examination of tissues
    -use for searching for signs of disease
  • Systemic Anatomy
    -study of one organ system at a time
  • Comparative Anatomy
    -type of study, observing more than one species
    -compare, examine, structural similarities and differences
    -analyze evolutionary trends
  • Methods of Studying Anatomy
    -INSPECTION: surface appearance
    -PALPATION: "hands on"     "palpating swollen lymph node"
    -AUSCULTATION: listening, natural sounds made by the body
    -PERCUSSION: "taps"   check for abnormal resistance by listening to emitted sounds for abnormalities (pockets of fluid, air, scar tissue)   
    -DISSECTION: cut, separate tissues, reveals relationships between tissues
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    -superior to CT for visualizing soft tissues
    -lays in tube that produces large magnetic field
    -hydrogen atoms in tissues align themselves with the field
    -then radio wave emitter activated, hydrogen atoms react abruptly
    -hydrogen atoms absorb additional energy and align in different direction
    -once radio waves are turned off, hydrogen atoms instantly realign to magnetic field, and their excess energy is released and analyzed in order to determine the specific type of issue      
    -DISADVANTAGE: patient must lie completely still in enclosed space for about 45 minutes for one region, up to 90 minutes for full body scan
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
    -assesses the metabolic state of tissue to distinguish which tissues are most active at a given moment
    -inject radioactively labeled glucose, emitting positrons
    -shows extent of tissue death from a heart attack
    -dead tissue absorbs no glucose so appears dark in image
  • Hierarchy of Human Anatomy
    -ORGANISM: single, complete individual capable of acting seperately from other individuals
    -ORGAN SYSTEMS: group of organs that carries out a basic function 
    -ORGANS: structure, definite anatomical boundries, composed of 2 or more tissue types working together
    -TISSUES: mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ, performs specific function
    -CELLS: smallest units of organisms considered to be alive, enclosed plasma membrane composed of lipids and protein, usually one nucleus, an organelle that contains DNA
    -ORGANELLES: microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions, include the nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, centrioles, and others
    -MOLECULES: comprises material that forms organelles, particles of at least two atoms joined by chemical bond
    -ATOMS: particles joined by chemical bond that makeup molecules
  • Body Systems
    -11 organ systems in human body
    -plus immune system, better described as population of cells that inhabit multiple organs rather than as an organ system
  • Integumentary System
    -principle organs: skin hair nails
    -protects, water retention
  • Skeletal System
    -principle organs: bones, cartilages, ligaments
    -support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  • Muscular System
    -principle organs: skeletal muscles
    -movement, stability, communication, heat production, control of bodily openings
  • Lymphatic System
    -principle organs: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
    -recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense against disease
  • Respiratory System
    -principle organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi,  lungs
    -absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base balance, speech
  • Urinary System
    -principle organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    -elimination of wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressure, stimulation of red blood cell formation, control of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, detoxification
  • Nervous System
    -principle organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
    -rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control and sensation
  • Endocrine System
    -principle organs: pituitary gland, pineal gland thyroid gland, parathyroid glad, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries
    -hormone production, internal chemical communication and coordination
  • Circulatory System
    -principle organs: heart, blood vessels
    -distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat, immune cells, and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  • Digestive System
    -principle organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
    - nutrient breakdown and absorption, liver functions including metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. disposal of drugs, toxins, and hormones, cleansing of blood
  • Male Reproductive System
    -principle organs: testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate glands, penis
    -production and delivery of sperm, secretion of sex hormones
  • Female Reproductive System
    -principle organs: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
    -production of eggs, site of fertilization and fetal development, fetal nourishment, brith, lactation, secretion of sex hormones
  • Supinated
    -forearm is supinated when the palms face up or anteriorly
  • Pronated
    -forearm is pronated when they face down or posteriorly
  • Prone
    -person lying face down
  • Supine
    -person lying face up
  • Ipsilateral
    -on the same side of the body (left or right)
  • Contralateral
    -on opposite sides of the body (left and right)
  • Dorsum
    -upper surface of the foot
    -back of hand
  • Locations of Abdominal Structures
    -Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ):
    -Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
    -Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ): 
    -Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ):
  • Regions of the Abdominus
    -Epigastric region (top third, in between RUQ and LUQ
    -umbilical region (middle, top half of region in between RUQ and LUQ, bottom half of region in between RLQ and LLQ)
    -hypogastric region (bottom third abdomen, in between RLQ and LLQ)
  • Lesser Regions of the Abdominus
    -hypochondriac region: left and right of epigastric region
    -lumbar region: left and right of umbilical region
    -inguinal region: left and right of hypogastric region
  • Terms of Dividing Planes for Abdominus
    -midclavicular line: Runs superior and inferior the hypochondriac, lumbar, and inguinal region (runs through midpoint of clavical)
    -subcoastal line: runs medial and lateral directly beneath the epigastric region (connects inferior borders of the lowest costal cartilages)
    -intertubicular line: runs medial and lateral directly superior the hypogastric region (passes from left to right betwen the tubercles of the hip bones)
  • Pericardium
    -two layered serous membrane that wraps around the heart
    -inner layer of pericardium (VISCERAL) forms the surface of the heart itself
    -outer layer called PARIETAL pericardium, seperated from the visceral pericardium by a space called the PERICARDIAL CAVITY, which is lubricated by a thin film of PERICARDIAL FLUID
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Latest added flashcards

Three Protein Fiber Types Found in Fibrous Connective Tissue?
-Collagenous fibers
Fibers That Are Made of a Protein Whose Coiled Structure Allows the Fibers to Stretch and Recoil Are _________ Fibers?
Two Broad Categories of Fibrous Connective Tissue, Based on the Relative Abundance of Fibers, Are _________ and _________ Connective Tissue?
Structural Unit of Compact Bone Consisting of a Central Canal Surrounded by Concentric Cylindrical Lamellae of Matrix is an __________?
Formed Elements of Blood
External Ear is an Example of a Location of ________ Cartilage?
Type of Bone Tissue That Contains Delicate Slivers and Plates is _________?
Type of Epithelium That Makes Up the Air Sacs of the Lungs, Inner Lining of the Heart and Blood Vessels, and Serous Membranes of the Viscera?
-simple squamous
Functions of Connective Tissue in the Body?
-support and protect organs
-bind organs to each other
Another Name For a Red Blood Cell?