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Summary - Human resource development
1 Introduction to Human Resource Development
How can HRD be defined?As a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organizations to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.
HRD seeks to develop people's knowledge, expertise, productivity and satisfaction.
HRD has been common use since the 80's, describe (shortly) the history of this field (starting in 18th century)-18th century: private 'franchises' for education (Yeoman)
-1809: Early Vocational (beroeps) education programs (training for youn people who were unemployed or hard criminal records)
-Late 1800's: factory schools/training programs for skills for a particular job
-Begin 1900's: training programs for semi/unskilled
When did the HR movement start?During the undesirable byproducts op the factory systems. The HR movement: more human working conditions, importance of human behavior on the job
Describe the theory from Maslow on human needs?People can be motivated by both economic and noneconomic incentives. He distinguished between lower order (survival) and higher order (psychological) needs.
Describe the emergence of human resource development (69/70's):Trainers started the 'American Society for Training and Development'. ASTD approves the term HRD to encompass the growth nd change of this expanding profession.
In the beginning there were 2 main roles for HRD:
1 Strategic role of HRD: how HRD links to and supports the goals and objectives of the organization
2 Performance improvement was the particular goals of most training and HRD efforts, high performance work systems.
How can HRM be defined?As the effective selection and utilization of employees to best achieve the goals and strategies on the organizations as well as the goals and needs of the employees. Primary functions: obtaining, maintaining and developing employees. Secondary functions: provide support for general management activities and being involved in determining/changing the structure of the organization.
Define the following HRM function: HR planning?
How changing in management strategic will affect future HR needs,
Define the following HRM function: Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)?
Activities that are intended to satisfy both the legal and moral responsibilities of an organizations through the prevention of discriminatory policies, procedures and practices.
Define the following HRM function: staffing (recruitment/selection)?
Activities are for the identification of potential applicants for current/future openings and for assessing/evaluating applicants, in order to make selection and placement decisions.
Define the following HRM function: compensation/benefits?
Administration is responsible for establishing and maintaining an equitable wage structure, competitive benefits package and incentives tied to performance.
Define the following HRM function: employee (labor) relations?
Developing a communication system through which employees can address their problems/grievance.
Define the following HRM function: HRD activities. Describe the 3 secondary HRD activities:
1 Organization/job design: activities are concerned with interdepartemental relations and the organization and definition of jobs
2 Performance management and performance appraisal systems: used for establishing/maintaining accountability throughout an organization.
3 Research and information systems: necessary to make enlightened HR decisions.
Describe the difference between line and staff authority:1 Line authority = given to managers/org. units that are directly responsible for the production
2 Staff authority = given to org. units that advise and consult line units = HRD
There are 3 primary HRD functions: training & development, organizational development and career development. One of the HRD functions is Training & Development (T&D), describe this function.
T&D focuses on changing/improving the knowlegde, skills and attitudes of individuals. Training = providing skills etc. for a particular job. Developmental have a longer term focus. T&D program:
-Skills & technical training
-When there are problems: counseling
One of the HRD functions is organizational development. Describe OD:OD is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well being of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts.
Organizational development emphasized both macro and micro organizational changes. What for changes are this?Marco = intended to ultimately improve the effectiveness of the organization as a whole
Micro = directed to individuals/small groups/team.
Role of HRD professional = change agent.
One of the functions of HRD is Career Development, what is this?Career development is an ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues themes and tasks.
Career development involves two distinct processes, which two?Career planning (activities performed by an individual often with the assistance of others to asses his skills/abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan).
Career management (taking the necessary steps to achieve that plan and generally focuses more on what an organization can do to foster CD)
It is important to fully integrate HRM with an organizations strategy. To do this 2 types of allignment are necessary. Describe these allignments.1 External allignment: between te strategic plans and the external environment.
2 Internal allignment: strategy with the mission, goals, beliefs and values.
In which 3 ways should HRD professionals demonstrate the strategic capability of HRD?1 Directly participating in the strategic management process
2 Providing education/training to line managers in the concepts/methods of the strategic management/planning.
3 Providing training to all employees in allignment with goals/strategies.
The supervisors role in HRD plays a critical role in implanting many HRD programs and processes. Especially in small organizations where there be not an HR department so most HRD efforts fall upon supervisors/managers.
The HRD executive/manager has primary responsibility for all HRD activities. Today also referred as Chief Learning officer. There are 9 other GRD roles/outputs for HRD professionals. Describe them:1 HR strategic advisor (consults strategic decision makers on HRD issues that are related to strategy/goals. Output: hr strategic plans/strategic planning education/training programs)
2 HR systems designer/developer (output: HR program design, interventions strategies and implementation of HR programs)
3 Organization change agent (advises management in change strategies. Output: efficient work teams, quality management, intervention strategies, implementation and change reports)
4 Organization design consultant (advises management on work systems and efficient use of HR. Output: intervention strategies, alternative work design and implementation)
5 Learning program specialist (identifies needs, develops learning programs and prepares materials foe other learning aid. Output: program objectives, lesson plans, intervention strategies)
6 Instructor/facilitator (presents materials and leads/facilitates learning. Output: instructional methods and techniques and the HRD program itself)
7 Individual development/career counselor (assist employees in assessing their competencies/goals for a realistic career plan. Output: assessment sessions, workshops and career guidance).
8 Performance consultant/coach (advised line managemen on interventions designed to improve performance. Output: intervention strategies, coaching design and implementation)
9 Researcher (assesses HRD practices/programmes to determine their effectiveness and communicates results. Output: research design/findings and recommendations/reports).
Which 6 challenges are currently facing the HRD field?1 Increasing workforce diversity
2 Competing in global economy
3 Eliminating the skills gap (hire educated people)
4 Meeting the need for lifelong individual learning
5 Facilitating organizational learning (also individual development)
6 Addressing ethical issues and dilemmas in a (pro)active manner
Learning is the core of all HRD efforts
What are the 3 goals of HRD?1 To assist employees and organizatios in attaining their goals
2 Ultimate objective is to improve organizational performance
3 Major focus of most HRD interventions is an effort to change employee behavior.
What are the 4 important characteristics of management training and development?To ensure managers and supervisors have the KSAs (knowledge, skills, abilities) needed to be effective:
1 Supervisory training
2 Job rotation
4 College/university courses
What does strategic management includes? (3)Strategy formulation, strategy implementation and control.
Describe the 4 phases in the training in HRD process (this ia s framework for the hrd process):
1 Needs assessment phase: this involves examining an organization/its environment/job tasks/employee performance. Try to discouver the need/gap within an organization.
2 Design phase: design of HRD program/intervention with clear objectives. Select/develop the content of the program.
3 Implementation phase
4 Evaluation phase: measure effectiveness.