Summary Information Systems for Business and Beyond

ISBN-10 1533064164 ISBN-13 9781533064165
163 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Information Systems for Business and Beyond". The author(s) of the book is/are David Bourgeois. The ISBN of the book is 9781533064165 or 1533064164. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Information Systems for Business and Beyond

  • 1 Introduction

  • What is the definition of Information system

    Information systems (IS) is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software that
    people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data
  • Gabriele Piccoli formulates an information systems as follows
    Information systems are formal, sociotechnical, organizational systems designed to collect, process, store and distribute information
  • What are the components of an information system (piccoli vs Bourgeois)
    Automatiseren: Je moet goed weten welke informatievoorziening een organisatie nodig heeft om een proces te kunnen automatiseren 

    informeren: Bijv. van balie naar online inchecken – het heeft invloed op de klanten, personeel achter de balie. De mensen achter de balie krijgen hierbij een andere taak, zij zijn voor de moeilijke vragen. Waarbij andere vaardigheden zijn verreist.

    Transformeren: Expertises/kennis zit in de hoofd van de mensen. Hiervoor zijn systemen nodig om deze kennis te behouden/vast te leggen zodat andere dit kunnen gebruiken. Wil je dit laten werken, dan moet je deze mensen in een taak laten opnemen en belonen/ afdeling anders organiseren/nieuwe functies creëren.
  • What is the Is-centered view of an information System
    Hardware, Software, Data, People and procedures
  • What is the managerial view of an IS
    Business processes, People and information Systems
  • What is the Language/ Action Perspective (LAP)
    Communiceren is niet alleen overdragen van communicatie, maar daarmee worden ook dingen gedaan. Bijv. Je kan een verplichting creëren/huwelijk sluiten.

    Mensen communiceren om de activiteiten te coördineren, en begint dus niet met technologie.

     Hierbij geeft informatie systemen een structuur aan communicatie  

    Communicatie is voor een opbouw van relatie.
  • Where is the Rick Maes cube useful for

    for a good coordination between business and IT

    The nine-square model is a framework for integration that allows the management to make use of the a coherent and balanced way and a relationship at the strategic, structuring and executive level can be established. between information and communication processes that support the business processes and the associated
    associated technology.

    Het negenvlaksmodel is geen procesmodel, noch wetenschappelijk onderbouwd. Het is vooral een handig model om over processen, functies en rollen van ICT en informatiemanagement binnen een organisatie te plaatsen.
  • Difference between CIO and CDO
    CDO takes on the strategic aspect of the digital transformation and the communication aspects

    the CIO in turn always focuses on on the technical aspects of the transformation.
  • What is digital transformation
     use of new digital technologies, such as social media, mobile, analytics or embedded devices, in order to enable major business improvements like enhancing customer experience, streamlining operations or creating new business models.
  • What is the difference between digitalization and digitization
    digitizing—a technical process
    digitalization—a sociotechnical process
  • 2 Hardware + Introduction AI

  • Formulate Moore's Law
    the number of transistors on a chip will double every two years. The computing power will double every two year for the same price point. Another way of looking at this is to think that the price for the same computing power will be cut in half every two years. Most devices are getting smaller, faster, cheaper.
  • What is the motherboard?
    the main circuit board on the computer. The CPU, memory, and storage components, among other things, all connect into the motherboard. The motherboard provides much of the bus (= electrical connection between different computer components) of the computer.
  • What is RAM
    Random-Access Memory – when a computer starts up, it begins to load information from the hard disk into its working memory. The data access is much faster than on the hard disk. In order for a computer to work effectively, some minimal amount of RAM must be installed. Adding more RAM will allow the computer to run faster.

    It’s volatile. It can store data as long as it is receiving power; when the computer is turned off, any data stored in RAM is lost
  • What is a hard disk
    for long-term data storage. Where data is stored when the computer is turned off and where it is retrieved from when the computer is turned on. A hard disk consists of a stack of disks inside a hard metal case.
  • What is a SSD
    Solid-State Drives – long-term storage. Instead of spinning disks, the SSD uses flash memory, which is much faster. The use is lighter and faster than hard disks
  • What do they mean with a personal is a commodity
     in the sense there is a very little differentiation between computers, and the primary factor that controls their sale in their price. The main advantage is speed: an SSD has much faster data-access speeds than a traditional hard disk
  • What is the paradox of change
    Is defined by the opposing logics of stability and flexibility that operate across infrastructural layers and components. On one hand, digital infrastructures need to be stable to allow “enrollment” of new artifacts, processes, and actors; on the other, it must possess flexibility to allow unbounded growth.

    om verder te willen bouwen om een infrastructure moet het stable zijn, maar om te willen groeien en dus verder te bouwen moet je ook flexibel zijn.
  • What is the paradox of control
    Opposing logics around centralized and distributed control (or individual autonomy) play an equally important role in the evolution of digital infrastructures. This paradox of control brings into consideration the strategic actions of heterogeneous actors and their preferences on modes of control related to change. These considerations shape the services deployed, ownership of data and their definitions, control of critical resources (e.g., APIs), and the appropriation of value. 

    het wordt steeds moeilijker om alles te controleren waardoor je meer variabelen gaat gebruiken waardoor het controleren steeds moeilijker wordt, hoe meer je het dus probeert hoe minder controle je hebt
  • What is the digital representation of characteristics?

    ASCII A = even number of 1's dus een 1 toevoegen
    ASCII F= odd number of 1's   dus een 0 toevoegen
  • What is error-detection
    (parity bit = bescherming om fouten in de code te detecteren)
  • What is AI
    It's a lot of different things to a lot of different people:
    • Computational models of human behavior
      • Programs that behave (externally) like humans.
      • This is the original idea from Turing and the well known Turing Test is to use to verify this
  • What means “behave rationally” for a person/system
    Take the right/ best action to achieve the goals, based on his/its knowledge and belief
  • What are heuristics
    rules of thumb to decrease the search space

    • For instance, in the chess program we can add an evaluation function and cut off branches where the evaluation value is too low
    • Find a first possible solution and then try to optimize it by small changes (hill climbing)
  • What is ANN
    Artificial Neural Networks:
    Mathematical / computational model that tries to simulate the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks
  • What is a semantic network?
    A semantic net is a network which represents semantic relations among concepts. It is often used as a form of knowledge representation.
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