Summary Inorganic Chemistry

ISBN-10 019964182X ISBN-13 9780199641826
148 Flashcards & Notes
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Summary - Inorganic Chemistry

  • 1.4 Penetration and shielding

  • What is the ground state electron configuration?
    Ground state electron configuration is a specification of the orbital occupation of an atom in its lowest energy state. Exclusion principle forbids more than two electrons from occupying a single orbital.
  • What does Pauli's principle imply?
    No more than two electrons may occupy a single orbital and, if two do occupy a single orbital their spins must be paired.
  • 1.5 The building-up principle

  • What does the aufbau principle imply?
    According to the building-up principle, orbitals of neutral atoms are treated as being occupied in the order determined in part by the principal quantum number and in part by penetration and shielding. Order of occupation: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p. Each orbital can accomodae up to two electrons
  • 5.1 Redox half-reactions

  • What is reduction?
    Electron gain. 2H+ + 2- --> H2(g)
  • What is oxidation?
    Electron loss. Zn(s) --> Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e-
  • 5.2 Standard potentials and spontaineity

  • What is understood under a spontaneous reaction?
    At constant temp and pressure, the reaction gibbs energy change is negative. Delta G= -RTlnK. G<0 = k>1
  • What is an galvanic cell?
    Electrochemical cell in which a chemical reaction is used to generate an electric current, in which the reaction driving the electric current through the external circuit is the reaction of interest.
  • What is the difference between a cathode an an anode?
    Cathode is where reduction occurs and anode is where oxidation occurs.
  • How can the potential be measured?
    Delta G= -vFE E--> Standard potential. F= Faraday's constant and v= stoichiometric coefficient of the electrons transferred.
  • What is a fuel cell?
    A cell which converts a chemical fuel directly into electrical power.
  • 5.4 Electrochem series

  • What does a negative standard potential signifies?
    It signifies a couple in which the reduced species is a reducing agent for H+ ions under standard conditions in aq solution.
  • What implies a positive E
    Ox is strongly oxidizing
  • 5.5 Nernst eq

  • What is the reaction quotient?
    A Oxa + B Redb--> RedA + B'OX B 

    Q= [RedA0^a'[OxB]^b'
                 [OXA]^a[RedB]^b
    Q is the same as K(At equilibrium)
  • What is the nernst equation? And when is a reaction spontaneous?
    Ecell=Ecell(st.pot)-RT/vF * ln Q. 
    Reaction is spontaneous when Ecell >0 and G<0
  • 5.6 Influence of p

  • For a redox couple in which there is transfer of ve electrons and vh protons: 

    Ox + ve- + vh+ --> RedHvh+   Q=[RedHvh]/[Ox][H]^vh
  • What happens with the potential as the pH increases and the solution becomes more basic?
    Potential decreases
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