Summary Integrated principles of zoology

ISBN-10 0071221980 ISBN-13 9780071221986
449 Flashcards & Notes
9 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Integrated principles of zoology". The author(s) of the book is/are Cleveland P Hickman, Jr. The ISBN of the book is 9780071221986 or 0071221980. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Integrated principles of zoology

  • 1 Introduction to living animals

  • Wat is het metabolisme?

    Levende organismen blijven zichzelf door het zich opnemen van nutriënten vanuit hun milieu.

  • What is Zoology

    The scientific study of animals

  • When is a species andromous

    When they spend their adult lives at sea but return to freshwater to spawn (salmon) 

  • General properties of living systems

    1. chemical uniqueness. Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex molecular organization. There are four major categories of biological macromolecules: Nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. 

    2. Complexity and hierarchical organization. Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex hierarchical organization. 

    3. Reproduction. Living systems can reproduce themselves. 

    4. Possession of a genetic program. A genetic program provides fidelity of inheritance. 

    5. Metabolism. Living organisms maintain themselves by acquiring nutrients from their environments. 

    6. Development. All organisms pass through a characteristic life cycle.

    7. Environmental interaction. All animals interact with their environments. 

    8. Movement. Living systems and their parts show precise and controlled movements arising from within the system. 

  • What is heredity

    Heredity is the faithful transmission of traits from parents to offspring, usually at the organismal level.

  • What is variation

    Variation is the production of differences among the traits of different individuals. 

  • What are autotrophs

    Organisms that can synthesize their food from inorganic sources using light or another source of energy.

  • What are heterotrophs

    Heterotrophs are organisms lacking the ability to synthesize their food from inorganic sources. They must obtain their food directly from the environment. 

  • What is homology?

    The same organ in a different organism under everyvariety of form and function

  • What is allopatric speciation

    If populations are allopatric immediately preceding and during evolution of reproductive barriers between them, you get allopatric speciation, or geographic speciation.

  • What is vicariant speciation?

    Vicariant speciation is initiated when climatic or geological changes fragment a species' habitat, producing impenetrable barriers that separate different populations geographically. 

  • What is a founder event?

    A small number of individuals might disperse to a distant place where no other members of their species live. They may establish a new population. This is called a founder event.

  • What is sympatric speciation

    Different individuals within a species become specialized for occupying different components of the environment.

  • What is parapatric speciation?

    Geographically intermediate between allopatric and sympatric speciation. Two species are called parapatric with respect to each other if their geographic ranges are primarily allopatric but make contact along a borderline that neither species successfully crosses. 

  • What is sorting?

    The phenomenon of differential survival and reproduction among varying organisms. 

  • What is the typological (morphological) species concept?

    One model-species is shown in a museum and new individuals are compared to this one.

  • What is the biological species concept?

    A species is a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature.

  • What is the evolutionary species concept?

    A single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate. 

  • What is the cohesion species concept?

    The most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms

  • What is the phylogenetic species concept? 

    Irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms diagnosably distinct from other such groupings and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent. 

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hoofdstappen om kraakbeen te transformeren tot primair been
kraakbeen -> rondom diafyse begint botvorming (osteoblasten) -> primair bot met bloedvaten -> endrochonale botvorming diafyse -> endrochonale botvorming epifyse -> endrochonale botvorming epifisairschijf
groei van kraakbeen
- appasitioneel= vanuit oppervlakte kraakbeen differentieren cellen
- inestieel = kraakbeencellen vermeerderen
- kunnen omgezet worden tot chondrocyten
hyalien kraakbeen en primair been
hyalien kraakbeen = licht roze
primair been = donker roze 

overeenkomst -> allebei collageen
verschil -> meer zouten in primair been
kanalen van volkmann
- haaks op de kanalen van havers
- bevatten uiteinden van kanalen van havers met bloedvaten en zenuwvezels
functie canaliculi
- staat contact toe tussen osteocyt en bloed
vorming osteoblasten
- in peristeon en endostium
- groeirichting -> van buiten naar binnen
botbreuk is pijnlijk omdat:
- botten bevaten zenuwen (om signalen van het bot door te geven naar de hersen) 
- beenvlies bevat veel zenuwcellen
twee soorten been
- compact been = buitenkant + geen holtes + stevigheid
- spongieus been = binnenkant + wel holtes + levend deel
functie rode merg
- stamcellen aanmaken waaruit later de bloedcellen onstaan
- gaten in het bot waardoor bloedvaten lopen