Summary International Organisations

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Summary - International Organisations

  • 1.1 Lecture 1

  • State
    Political community with permanent population, defined territory, government with monopoly of force and capacity to enter into relations with other states
  • Intergovernmental Organization
    IGO: IO with membership made up for three or more states. Decline since 1980s
  • Transnational Organisation
    IO made up of private actors (e.g. transnational corporations, religious movements, NGO's, epistemic communities, social movements)
  • International Institution
    Set of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors' expectations converge in a given area of IR
  • International Relations
    structural formal contacts between governments through bilateral and multilateral diplomatic relations
  • Transgovernmental Relations
    structural informal contacts between (representatives of) ministries, parliaments and other governmental bodies
  • Transnational Relations
    structural contacts between private actors across state borders
  • History of IGO's
    Treaties of Westphalia 1648. Origins lie in the 19th century, beginning of cooperation in areas such as health, trade transport and communication. Diplomacy by conference was the new norm for state relation. League of nations was created in the aftermath of WW1, most important IO's were created in aftermath of WW2
  • Why do state create international institutions?
    To bridge the tension between individual and collective interests. Also: pursue common interests, coordinate actions, facilitate regulat communication, monitor one another, gain legitimacy, symbolic value, adjudicate disputes etc.
  • Main structure of IGO's
    1. A founding treaty in which institutional structure, principles, functions and commitments are outlined (e.g. Treaty on European Union)
    2. Assembly (e.g. UN General Assembly)
    3. Council (e.g AU executive Council, UNSC)
    4. Secretariat (e.g. EU council secretariat)
    Sometimes, IO's can have parliaments, courts, organs for dealing with specific policy areas or that represent particular interests
  • What can IO's do according to Barnett and finnemore
    Classify the world
    fix meanings in the social world
    articulate and diffuse new norms

    they see IO's as autonomous sources of power/authority
    IO's are actors, not just a stage
  • Mearsheimer view on IO's
    IO's are tools of powerful states with minimal autonomous power
  • UN history
    Created out of League of Nations. Built on the Four policemen concept, to maintain peace and security, and foster international cooperation.
    Atlantic charter signed in 1941, Dumbarton Oaks in 1944, Yalta 1945 and San Francisco in 1945

    Members committed to sovereign equality and to keep the UN from intervening in domestic affairs
  • UN structure organs
    primary organs: General Assembly, UNSC, ECOSOCC, secretariat, ICJ (and trusteeship Council)
  • What is UN Policy
    Actions and principles promoted through UN treaties, resolutions, programs, projects, missions, campaigns, mandates and recommendations
  • When is UN Policy applied
    Broadly speaking: international peace and security, human rights, humanitarian aid, sustainable development and international law
  • Who enacts UN policy?
    secretary-general, secretariat, UN agencies, ICJ, International criminal court, UN tribunals, peacekeeping forces, NGO's, Member states and the private sector
  • UN policy making intergovernmentalist perspective
    States use UN for what they can get out of it. Therefore, policy reflects distribution of international power
  • UN policy making transnational perspective
    elements of UN system operate with a high degree of autonomy from states, with constituencies that go well beyond states, and have independent power to initiate projects and policies
  • Study of IO's 1960s
    behavioralism popularized, focusing on political behavior of actors, verifying testable propositions
  • study of IO's 1960-1980s
    'Failures' of IO's decreases interest in IO research
  • Study of IO's 1980s - present
    And of Cold War, decline of US hegemony leads to increased interest in IO's, flowering of new
  • Rational choice cleavage
    developed from economics, self-interested rational actors, pursuing stable, exogenous interest. Institutions can structure and constrain individual choice: eg neoliberal institutionalism, Robert keohane.

    Individuals are self-interested and pursue strategies to maximize well-being.
    How do institutions shape individual choice
  • Sociological institutionalism cleavage
    developed from sociology, critiques efficiency/functionality assumptions of rational choice, emphasizes social factors (norms, culture, ideas, meaning), more receptive to idea that IO's can develop autonomy (e.g. constructivism, Barnett and Finnemore)
  • Montevideo Convention
    States should have a:
    - permanent population
    - territory 
    - an effective government 
    - capacity to enter into relations
  • Hobbes and Rousseau about the state
    state is a social contract between the government and the people
  • Tilly about states
    Both war and state making are just organized crime
  • Main transnational organisations types
    Non-for-profit organizations: NGO
    Commercial organizations
    Social/religious organizations
    elites
  • Political Functions of IO's
    Forum function;
    Fact finding (on climate change for example)
    Rule making (legal and informal)
    Increased predictability (binding, disciplining)
    A forum for collective action (executing the consensus on the members)
    Institutionalized context for cooperation and conflict
  • First step of EU integration
    European Coal and Steal community in 1951
  • Regionalisation
    Process of economic integration, driven by the market rather than by governments
  • Regionalism
    State-led projects of cooperation and coordination, built through intergovernmental dialogues, treaties and institutions (e.g. PTA's, RO's)
  • Regional integration
    Social transformation marked by lowering of internal boundaries, raising of external boundaries, increased flows of people, goods, capital, etc., and transfer of sovereignty to supranational authority
  • Preferential Trading Arrangements (PTAs)
    Trading blocs, in which members receive preferential access to one another’smarkets; can include customs unions, free trade areas and common markets
  • Regional Organisations (ROs)
    International institutions with a bureaucracy and restricted membership, providing structure for cooperation and coordination in both economic and non-economic issues
  • NATO
    he North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • AIIB
    Asian Infrastructure Investment bank
  • since 1980s organizations
    Decline of intergovernmental organizations (organizations made up by states). increase in nongovernmental organizations
  • since 1945 organizations
    increase of regional intergovernmental organizations
  • regions accumulation
    around 1990. because of the end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union. also because of the increasing dominance of the liberal international economic order.
  • Region according to gutner
    a group of countries located in the same geographical area
  • Macleod and Jones definition of Region
    historically constructed, culturally contested and politically charged rather than existentially given and neutral
  • Old regionalism
    developed in 1950s until 1970s. About formal, intergovernmental and state-driven processes and politics. Key factors = governments.
  • New regionalism
    started to develop in the 1990s. Regionalism beyond state-led projects. Made difference between de jure and de facto
    De jure: formal intergovernmental organizations
    De facto: how deep the actual integration in those organizations, how effective are they and what do they do?
  • Non-European regional ideologies
    Pan-Americanism, Pan-Africanism, Pan-Arabism: emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries, contributing towards the formation of RO's
  • intergovernmentalism
    Governments are the key actors, use integration to achieve economic and security goals in the context of interdependence: outcomes reflect regional preference and power constellations
  • Neofunctionalism
    TNCs, interest groups and supranational actors empowered by integration and shape it their interests: spillovers push integration beyond intergovernmental bargain
  • Post functionalism
    focuses on backlash mechanism of integration (forces that push back against integration) from economic and cultural 'losers'
  • What kind of organizations are development and investment banks? + exception
    Regional Organizations: AIIB is a RO although many EU countries were founding members
  • NATO: what organization?
    Regional organization: a bit weird: some regional countries are not in NATO, whilst some countries are
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