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Summary - International Relations Theories Discipline and Diversity
0 Introduction: Diversity and Disciplinarity in International Relations Theory
Which view of theory and theoretical pluralism is argued for by Steve Smith in the book chapter?Theories constitute different but sometimes overlapping social worlds.
What is stated about the difference in International Relations theory in the book chapter by Steve Smith?Theories are like different lenses. They can not be combined since they see different worlds.
According to Steve Smith, theory choice is influenced by what?Theory choice is influenced by position in the social world.
What makes the role of an International Relations theory constitutive?
- It asks and answers what certain social objects are.
- It examines the way in which norms and ideas create the social world.
- AIt theorizes how the world is constituted through theories.
- It asks and answers what certain social objects are.
What is the difference between an explanatory theory and a constitutive theory in International Relations?According to constitutive theory, theories can never be seen separate from the world; they are an intrinsic part of it. Explanatory theory views the world as existing apart from it.
1 International Relations and Social Science
What are meta-theories in International Relations?Theories about theories.
Which meta-theories do we know?
- Ontology: theory of being
- Epistemology: theory of knowing
- Methodology: theory of methods
Who were the opponents in the First Debate in the discipline of IR before, during and after World War II?Idealists and realists
What was the subject of the First Debate between idealists and realists in the discipline of IR before, during and after World War II?The role of international institutions and the likelihood that the causes of war might be improved.
What was the stance of idealists in the First Debate in the discipline of IR before, during and after World War II??War in the international system could be controlled by creating institutions and understanding international processes. Committed to producing knowledge that was scientific.
What was the stance of realists in the First Debate in the discipline of IR before, during and after World War II?They emphasized the anarchic structure of the international system and the need for state survival.
What did the realists criticize the idealists for in the First Debate in the discipline of IR before, during and after World War II?That the idealists focused too much on how the world ought to be and not on how the world was.
What did the idealists and realists share in the First Debate in the discipline of IR before, during and after World War II?Both contenders had no clear account of science.
In the Second Debate in the discipline of IR in the 1960s, behaviouralists embraced positivism. Positivism suggests that scientific knowledge emerges only with the collection of observable data. This new scientific model criticizes realism for being based on unclear concepts such as power. The other way around, traditionalists criticized positivism by stating that the core concepts of IR are not open to strict data. Contrary to positivism, scientific realism also includes unobservables as researchable entities.
The Second Debate was also about quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Who were the components In the Second Debate in the discipline of IR in the 1960s?Traditionalists (English school, realists) and modernists (behaviouralists)
What is Kuhn's view on choice of paradigms?Choosing between paradigms is not a matter of any criteria related to the validity of knowledge. Paradigms are incommensurable, they cannot be compared.
On what grounds does one choose a paradigm, as designed by Kuhn?Choosing between paradigms is subjective and not arbitrary, the choice must consider a multiplicity of factors.
What were the opposing paradigms in the Interparadigm Debate or Third Debate in the 1970s and 1980s?Realism, pluralism and Marxism.
What was the core of the Fourth Debate in the Discipline of IR in the mid 1980s?The debate between explaining and understanding, between positivism and post-positivism or between rationalism and reflectivism.
In the Fourth Debate in the discipline of IR in the mid-1980s, Keohane lumped which theories under the label of reflectivism?Critical theory, feminism, constructivism and post-structuralism
In the Third Debate, the contending theories did not have competing philosophies of science.
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With what Debate is Feminism associated?
Feminism is associated with the Third Debate.
What are the 2 central components of Critical Theory?
- Epistemological and methodological: why do we study IR? what it says about theory.
- Normative and substantive: how do we study IR? What it says about the world.
What statement does practical philosophy make?
Philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.
What does capitalist freedom entail?
Capitalism frees workers to treat their labour as their own property.
What are organic relations in Marxism?
Each element of the relation is what it is by virtue of its place in the relation, and none can be understood in abstraction from that context.
What concept is fundamental to Marxism?
Fundamental to Marxism is the critical interpretation of capitalism. Capitalism is a historically produced - and therefore mutable - form of social life and not the outcome of human nature.
What 3 factors make capitalism drive towards imperialism?
- The quest for raw materials;
- Overproduction requires a search for new market;
- Overaccumulation compels the export of capital.
What did early twentieth-century Marxist writers argue concerning the relation between globalizing capitalism and imperial power?
Early twentieth-century Marxist writers argued that advanced processes of capitalist accumulation were driving the major capitalist countries into colonial expansionism.
What does capitalism unfreedom entail and what is the result of this for the workers?
The means of production are under the ownership and control of a class of private owners. The workers are compelled to sell their labour to members of this owning class in order to gain access to those means of production, engage in socially productive activity, and secure through their wages the material necessities of survival.
What does Marx's dialectical understanding of history entail?
Humans are historical, social beings, simultaneously the producers and the products of historical processes. Units and systems constitute each other. Humans can actively shape their history.