Summary Introduction to Organic Chemistry

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This is the summary of the book "Introduction to Organic Chemistry". The author(s) of the book is/are William H Brown Thomas Poon. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

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Summary - Introduction to Organic Chemistry

  • 1 Covalent Bonding and Shapes of Molecules


  • 1. De elektronenstructuur (configuratie) van atomen beschrijven, in het bijzonder van de eerste tien elementen.
    2. De Lewisstructuren van moleculen weergeven op basis van de elektronenstructuren van de afzonderlijke elementen.
    3. Bindingshoeken en ruimtelijke structuur van verbindingen voorspellen op basis van het (VSEPR) model.
    4. De ruimtelijke structuur van moleculen (inclusief bindingshoeken) verklaren mbv van het hybridisatie model (sp3, sp2 en sp) van de (C) atomen.
    5. Op basis van opbouw en elektronen-negativiteit van een molecuul de polariteit beredeneren.
    6. De functionele groepen van alcoholen, amines, aldehydes en ketonen, alkenen en alkynen herkennen.
  • 1.1 How do we Describe the Electronic Structures of Atoms?

  • What are the principle energy levels?
    The principle energy levels are the space to which an electron in confined to move within.
  • How are electrons further grouped?
    1. The principle energy levels or Shells.
    2. The subshells s, p, d and f.
    3. Orbitals, each containing a maximum of 2 electrons
  • How are the orbitals distributed within the shells?
    1. 1 s orbital in each shell
    2. 3 p orbitals in each shell, except the first shell
    3. 5 d orbitals in each shell, except the first two shells
    4. 7 f orbitals in each shell, except the first three shells
  • What are the first 10 elements of the periodic table?
    Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Berylium, Boor, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluor, Neon
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 1? And what is the electron configuration?
    Hydrogen, 1s1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 2? And what is the electron configuration?
    Helium, 1s2
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 3? And what is the electron configuration?
    Lithium, 1s2 2s1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 4? And what is the electron configuration?
    Berylium, 1s2 2s2
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 5? And what is the electron configuration?
    Boor, 1s2 2s2 2px1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 6? And what is the electron configuration?
    Carbon, 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 7? And what is the electron configuration?
    Nitrogen, 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 8? And what is the electron configuration?
    Oxygen, 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 9? And what is the electron configuration?
    Fluor, 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 10? And what is the electron configuration?
    Neon, 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz2
  • What is the ground-state electron configuration?
    The electron configuration with the lowest possible energy.
  • What are valence electrons?
    The electrons in the outermost shell or valence shell.
  • What is a lewis structure?
    A representation of an electron with it's valence electrons drawn.
  • 1.2 What is the Lewis Model of Bonding?

  • What is the octet rule?
    Atoms strive to have eight electrons in it's outer shell.
  • What is an anion and what is a cation?
    An anion is a negatively charged ion and a cation is a positively charged ion.
  • Define Ionic bond
    Chemical bond from electrostatic interaction of an anion and a cation.
  • Define covalent bond
    Bond resulting from sharing one or more electron pairs.
  • What is electronegativity?
    It is a measure of the force of an atom's attraction for electrons which it shares with another atom in a chemical bond.
  • How is an ionic bond formed?
    An ionic bond is formed when an electron transfers from the valence shell of an atom with lower electronegativity to one with higher electronegativity.
  • When does ionic transfer of electrons occur?
    The guideline is when the difference in electronegativity is 1,9 or greater.
  • Define nonpolar covalent bond
    Covalent bond in which the difference in electronegativity between atoms is less than 0,5.
  • Define Polar covalent bond
    Difference in electronegativity is approximately between 0,5 an 1,9.
  • What is a dipole and how can you display this?
    A dipole is when there is a seperation of charge within a covalent bond or molecule. This can be displayed in a electron density model, with blue showing the more negative part and red the more positive part.
  • What is the formal charge and how to derive it?
    The formal charge is the charge on an atom or molecule and can be derived by:
    1. Writing down the Lewis structure.
    2. Assign al unshared electrons.
    3. Compare the number of electrons with the number of electrons in the neutral, unbonded atom.
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What can be said about the acid-base properties of aliphatic amines?
They all have approximately the same base strength, pKb 3,0 - 4,0 and are slightly stronger than ammonia.
What is the difference between an N-H---N and an O-H---O hydrogen bond?
The N-H---N bond is much weaker than the O-H---O bond, but still it is a strong dipole-dipole interaction.
How are amines named?
Systematically the suffix -e is replaced with -amine. The common names aniline, toluidine and anisidine are also retained.
What is a heterocyclic amine?
An amine in which the nitrogen is one of the atoms of a ring.
What are aromatic amines?
Amines in which the nitrogen is bonded to an aryl group.
How are amines classified?
As ammonia, primary, secondary and tertiary. Depending on the number of hydrogens that are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
What are aliphatic amines?
Amines in which a nitrogen is only bonded to alkyl groups.
Why are halogens deactivating?
1. Halogens are more electronegative and will induce the reactivity of the benzene ring.
2. A halogen can stabilize the cation by delocalizing its positive charge.
What generalizations about substituent groups to benzene can be made?
1. Any substituent containing an atom with an unshared electron pair next to the benzene ring is ortho-para directing. The rest is meta directing.
2. All ortho-para directing substituents are activating, except for halogens.
3. All meta directing groups carry a full or partial positive charge on the atom directly bonded to the benzene ring.
What is a meta director?
Any substituent on a benzene that directs electrophilic substitution to the meta position.