Summary INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Culture, Structure, and Inequality

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ISBN-10 0815353855 ISBN-13 9780815353850
262 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Culture, Structure, and Inequality". The author(s) of the book is/are FRANK VAN TUBERGEN. The ISBN of the book is 9780815353850 or 0815353855. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Culture, Structure, and Inequality

  • 1.1 the sociological perspective

  • Individual perspective= explanation of something that focusses on the individual
    social contect= social environment people are surrounded by
    sociological imagination/ sociological perspective= explanation of something that fosusses on social causes

    e.g. Individual perspective genes or behavior of the person itsself
         sociological perspective= country they live in or school time period age etc

    social phenomena= the thing the sociological perspective studies, collective human behaviour.

    behaviour has social causes and those social contexts result in collective behaviour.

    supplemental perspectives= two perspectives provide a more comprehensive explanation of human behavior.
    you need to consider both an individual and a sociological perspective to find the cause of the problem.

    alternative perspectives= only one of the two matters in explaining the cause
    e.g. With obesity people in amerika have more obesity because of genes and that is an individual perspective.

    promimate cause=factors that are close to the phenomena that has to be explaned
    ultimate causes= factors that underlie proximate causes       

    e.g. Ultimate cause-->oriximate cause--->consequense
        bullying                         negative self image       obesity

    micro level= level at which individuals operate
    meso level= intermediate level e.g. Familie school 
    macro level= broader than meso level= nations groups of nations continents
  • What is an individual perspective?
    An explanation that looks at the individual level
  • What is an sociolagical perspective?
    An explanation that looks at the social causes
  • What is social context?
    The social environment in which people live
  • What is another word for socialgical perspective?
    Sociolagical imagining
  • What is an example of an individual perspective?
    Obesity because of food intake or genes ( it is the persons own fault)
  • What is an example of an sociological perspective?
    It is because the country he lives in
  • What is an social phenomena?
    Collective human behavior
  • What causes collective behaviour?
    Human behavior results from shared social conditions and this causes collective behavior
  • What is the theory of supplemental perspectives?
    THis theory states that both an individual perspective and an sociological perspective are needed to find the cause
  • What is the theory of alternative perspectives?
    This theory states that only one of the two perspectives is needed to find the cause and that the other doesnt matter
  • Proximate cause
    Factors that are close to the phenomena to be explained
  • Ultimate cause
    Factors that underlie proximate causes
  • Give an example of proximate and ultimate causes
    Ult bullying
    prox negative self image
    consequense obesity
  • micro level
    Level at which individuals operate
  • Meso level
    Intermediate level , families school etc
  • Macro level
    Level that is higher than meso level, country nationalities continetns
  • 1.2 social problems

  • Social problem
    Affects multiple people
    is an issue whith which many people are concerned
  • Social problem other name
    Public issue
  • Personal trouble
    Problem that is related to the personal live of someone
  • Examples of social problems
    Corruption
    crime and unsafe neighbourhoods
    bullying
    violence
    income inequality
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Modernisation and mobility theory
Modernization in society will bring along changes in the labor market such that peoples personal skills and talents become the ker deterniming factors whereas ascrev°bed characteristics become less and less important
Cultural reprodiction theory
Increasing transmission of cultural capital
Great gatsby curve
In contemporaty societies higher within coutries income stratificationn is associated with lower intergenerational mobility in that country
Compensation mechanism
Strategic behavior of hogh status perents to maintain their high status in times of modernisation
Modernization changes status attainment process
Increasing specialisation, educational expansion, increasing goegraphical mobility
Modernization changes status attainmeny how
Ascription becomes less important, achievement becomes more important
Achievement
Personal effort skills talent and performance
Ascription
Characteristics set at birth such as family origin and ethnic origin
Relative mobility
Inequality between children from (different) social origins in their opportinuty to access social position
Structural mobility
Mobility that is due to changes in the volumes of available social position