Summary Introduction to Work and Organizational Behaviour

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ISBN-10 1137432063 ISBN-13 9781137432063
151 Flashcards & Notes
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This is the summary of the book "Introduction to Work and Organizational Behaviour". The author(s) of the book is/are John Bratton. The ISBN of the book is 9781137432063 or 1137432063. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Introduction to Work and Organizational Behaviour

  • 2.2 Bureaucratic structure and hierarchy

  • Rational organisational design is concerned with finding the most direct and efficient means to achieve organisational ends.
  • Three crucial aspects to bureaucracy:

    - Structure and hierarchy
    - Rules, policies and procedures
    - Records and paperwork
  • What is span of control?
    The number of employees that a manger directly oversees.
  • As organisations grow in size, the span of control grows larger for the owner. It becomes more sensible to delegate management to lower levels of the hierarchy. 

    This frees time for the manager to deal with other aspects of management rather than having to deal with a lack of discipline and personal issues among employees.  

    Day-to-day tasks are delegated to managers below the owner.  

    The owner can now issue controls to their managers, who will carry the message down the hierarchy.

    The owner will no longer have to contact workers at lower levels of the hierarchy.

    The owner returns to a manageable span of control
  • Vertical differentiation is when employees are separated vertically from one level of the hierarchy to the next.

    Horizontal differentiation describes the different branches of of the hierarchical structure due to the different responsibilities of managers.
  • What is an organisational structure?
    The roles and positions in an organisation
  • Each position on an organisational represents an office. The bureaucratic structure maps out the relationships between people acting in different official roles within the organisation.
  • 2.3 Bureaucratic standardisation – rules, policies and procedures

  • Rules, policies and procedures exist to standardise behaviours throughout an organisation.
  • Pay rates are an example of procedure which may standardise remuneration across an organisation.
  • Procedures reduce manager discretion, granting senior managers greater control over an organisation.
  • 2.4 Bureaucratic records and paperwork

  • Procedures necessitate and are greatly facilitated by paperwork, the official documentation within an organisation.
  • It is a necessary means of gathering information about the organisation and its employees. This is often done via pro-forma, which standardises the information and makes it easier to manage due to the pre-defined fields designated for specific kinds of infomrmation.
  • Such paperwork enables the surveillance and monitoring of employees, allowing higher management to be aware of the activity of workers lower in the hierarchy and exert control over them.
  • 2.5 The power of bureaucracy: large-scale control and rational design

  • Fayol's five functions of management are as follows:

    planning/forecasting– trying to predict future circumstances and preparing to respond to these circumstances.

    organising– building up the necessary structures, resources and people to meet the goals of an organisation.

    co-ordinating– bringing together the structural, human and resource elements of the organisation to harmoniously work toward the goals of the organisation

    commanding– giving orders to people within the organisation to maintain activity aimed at achieving organisational goals

    controlling– checking and inspecting work
  • Control is implemented through impersonal elements such as structure, rules and paperwork, allowing bureaucracy to achieve control across large-scale organisations.
  • 2.6 Weber and the critique of bureaucracy

  • Weber argues that authority was moving away from being grounded in religion and tradition to being grounded in bureaucratic forms of authority such as rules and hierarchy (which he described as rational-legal authority).
  • What is rational-legal authority?
    Authority that comes neither from tradition nor from the charisma of an individual, but from the office that the person holds.
  • Weber argued that as society moved towards bureaucratic procedures, the "magical" elements of life were replaced by procedure. This loss of life's "magical" elements was termed "disenchantment" by Weber.
  • Weber argued that bureaucracy caused people to feel as if they were trapped in the role of being small, insignificant elements in large-scale organisations.

    This would leave people with small, meaningless jobs to pursue.
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