Summary ISTQB Usability

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Summary - ISTQB Usability

  • 1 Basic concepts

  • Name the three basic concepts.
    • Usability
    • User experience
    • Accessibility
  • 1.1 Fundamentals

  • What is usability?

    Usability is the extent to which a software product can be used by specified users to achieve specified
    goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use
  • Name the activities for Usability evaluation.

    • Usability reviews
    • Usability testing
    • User surveys
  • What is a usability problem?

    A usability problem is a software defect which results in difficulty in performing tasks via the user
  • What are the consequences of a usabilty problem?

    This affects the user’s ability to achieve their goals effectively, or efficiently, or with satisfaction.
  • Name a few usability problems.

    Usability problems can lead to confusion, error, delay or outright failure to complete some task on the part of the user.
    In safety-critical systems such as medical systems, usability problems can also lead to injuries or death.
  • Usability always relates to the context of use and can be considered in different components. Name a few components.
    • Users
    • Tasks
    • Equipment
    • Environment
  • What is user experience?

    User experience describes a person’s perceptions and responses that result from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service.
  • Name the user experience characteristics that occur before, during and after use.
    • emotions
    • beliefs
    • preferences
    • perceptions
    • physical and psychological responses
    • behaviors and accomplishments
  • Give examples of what user experience is influenced by.

    • brand image (i.e., the users’ trust in the manufacturer)
    •  presentation (i.e., the appearance of the software product, including packaging and
    • documentation)
    •  functionality
    • software product performance
    • interactive behavior
    • the helpfulness of the software product, including help system, support and training
    • learnability
    • the user’s internal and physical state resulting from prior experiences, attitudes, skills, personality, education and intelligence
    • the context of use
  • Name usability criteria
    • Effectiveness
    • Efficiency
    • Satisfaction
  • Match the usability criteria: Effectivess, efficiency and satifaction  to user experience aspects: Brand imag , presentation, software performance and functionality.

    • Brand image and presentation: satisfaction
    • Functionality: effectiveness)
    • Software product performance: efficiency
  • What is accessibility?

    Accessibility is the degree to which a product or system can be used by people with the widest range
    of characteristics and capabilities to achieve a specified goal in a specified context of use.
  • 1.2 Evaluating usability, User experience and Accessibility

  • What's the key objective and target group for usability evaluation?

    Evaluate the direct interaction between users and
    the software product.
    Target group: All users.
  • What are the key objectives and target group for user experience

    • Evaluate the services received prior to the use of the software product.
    • Evaluate the direct interaction between users andthe software product.
    • Evaluate the services received after the use of the software product.
    • Target group: All users. 
  • What's the key objective and target group for Accessibility evaluation?

    Evaluate the direct interaction between users and
    the software product, focusing on understanding
    problems related to accessibility barriers, rather than
    general efficiency or satisfaction.
    Target group: Users with disabilities.
  • Name the three principal techniques applied for usability evaluation, user experience evaluation and accessibility
    • Usability review
    • Usability testing
    • Users surveys.  
  • Which of the three usability techniques is only a qualitative usability evaluation?
    Usability review.
  • In which technique are the involvement of users not always necessary?
    Usability review.
  • What's Usability Evaluation?

    A process through which information about the usability of a system is gathered in order to improve the system (known as formative evaluation) or to assess the merit or worth of a system (known as summative evaluation).
  • Name the two types of usability evaluation?
    • Formative (or “exploratory”) evaluation
    • Summative evaluation 
  • In which stage of the development lifecycle are formative and summative evaluation used?
    Formative evaluation early in the development lifecycle
    Summative evaluation late inthe development lifecycle.
  • Is summative evaluation qualitative of quantitative?

    Summative usability testing is quantitative; it focuses on obtaining measurements for the effectiveness, efficiency or satisfaction of a software product.
  • For what can a summative usability evaluation used?
    It can be used to evaluate a design based on usability requirements so that the design’s acceptability can be established from the users’ point of view.
  • What are the objectievs of usability evaluation
    • to assess whether usability requirements have been met
    • to uncover usability problems so they can be corrected
    • to measure the usability of a software product
  • What 's been adressed by usability evaluation?
    • The extent to which correct and complete goals are achieved
    • Answers the question: “Does the software product do what I want?”

    • Resources expended to achieve specified goals
    • Answers the question: “Does the software product solve my tasks quickly?”

    • Freedom from discomfort, and positive attitudes towards the use of the software product
    • Answers the question: “Do I feel comfortable while using the software product?”
  • In which form of usability technique are users not necessary?
    Usability reviews.
  • How can usability evaluation be carried out?

    By performing usability testing, conducting user surveys and performing usability reviews.
  • What can be enabled through qualitative usability evaluation?

    A qualitative usability evaluation enables identification and analysis of usability problems, focusing on understanding user needs, goals and reasons for the observed user behavior.
  • What can be enabled through quantitative usability evaluation?

    A quantitative usability evaluation focuses on obtaining measurements for the effectiveness, efficiency or satisfaction of a software product.
  • With users involved how can usability evaluation be carried out?

    By performing usability testing, conducting user surveys and performing usability reviews.
  • What does usability describes?

    User experience describes a person's perceptions and responses resulting from the use or anticipated use of a software product.
  • Where is usability part of?
    It is part of user experience.
    Consequently, usability evaluation is a part of user experience
  • What is included in user experience evaluation?
    • Advertisements that make users aware of the software product
    • Training in the use of the software product
    • Touchpoints with the software product other than screen dialogue, such as encounters with support, letters or goods received as a result of interaction with the software product
    • Problems that are not handled by the user interface of the software product, such as the notifications of delays, handling of complaints and unsolicited calls
  • What 's been adressed by user experience evaluation?

    The whole user experience with the software product, not just
    the direct interaction.
  • How can time gaps be bridged during a usaiblity test session?
    During a user experience test.
  • What's the definition of accessibility evaluation

    Accessibility evaluation is a usability evaluation which focuses on the accessibility of a software product.
  • What's been adressed by accessibility evaluation?

    It addresses the direct interaction between a user with disabilities or limitations and the software product.
  • Name four things that should be taken into account regarding to accessibility evaluation.
    • Define the ambition level for accessibility
    • Create or adapt guidelines for accessible design
    • Train development teams in order to prevent as many accessibility problems as possible
    • Accessibility testing.
  • What can be used for defining the ambition level for accessibility?
    The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) which defines three priority levels for accessibilityL A, AA, AAA. Recommended is AA.
  • Why should you adopt level AA of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)?
    It satisfies the most basic requirements for web accessibility and the biggest barriers for users with disabilities.
  • What is included in a guideline for accessible design besides de level of ambition?
    Legal requirements.
  • Name a few factors to consider when training a team to prevent accessibiliity problems.
    • Legal requirements
    • Guidelines for accessible desing and how to interpret and apply them
    • Tools and techniques to use when evaluating accessibility
    • The relationship between usability and accessibility.
  • What's the focus of accessibility testing?
    • Focuses on the following aspects use of think aloud technique
    • Focus on uderstanding mistakes
    • Use tasks that concentrate on specific areas of concern rather than on the general software product.
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Latest added flashcards

Conduct a usability survey is a task for the usability tester of which subtasks does it exitst?
  • Create a survey plan
  • Select an appropriate questionnaire
  • Analyze responses
  • Report results
Prepare a usability review is a task for the usability tester of which subtasks does it exitst?
  • Determine goals
  • Select appropriate review method(s)
  • Select reviewers
Prepare a usability testing session is a task for the usability tester of which subtasks does it exitst?
  • Create test scripts
  • Create Briefing instructions
  • Pre-session and post-session interview questions
  • Defined testing tasks
What are important criteria for selecting an accessibility evaluation method?

  • Legal requirements
  • Organizational requirements
  • The number of users with disabilities in the target groups for the software product.
What are important criteria for selecting a usability evaluation method/user experience evaluation method?
  • The purpose of the usability or user experience evaluation
  • Usability maturity of the organization
  • Completion time
  • Project stage
  • Resources 
  • Availability of end users
  • Type of software development lifecycle model: sequential, agile or other
Mixing usability evaluation methods is highly recommended. Why?
They should suit the development stage: usability reviews are performed early on and usability testing later.

An informal usability test of a mobile application in a cafe with five or six test sessions each lasting approximately ten minutes followed by more formal in-depth usability test sessions.  

A quick usability review that uncovers the most serious usability problems so they can be eliminated before an expensive usability test
Waht can you tell about the type of software development lifecycle model: sequential, agile or other in relation to selecting a evaluation method?

All methods described in this syllabus can be used with a sequential lifecycle model, such as the VModel.
The description of the Human-Centered Design approach i based on the sequential model, but the principles of Human-Centered Design apply universally for most other types of lifecycle model.
What's best if representative end users are not available or require too many resources to recruit or compensate?
Then usability reviews are better than usability testing.
What are the characteristics of short form of usability test?

  • The moderator also takes notes; there is no separate note-taker
  • No usability test lab is used; the test sessions take place, for example, in a meeting room
  • The test is limited to 3-5 test participants
  • The usability test report is short and lists a limited number of findings, for example 15
What is Rapid Iterative Testing and Evaluation (RITE)?

A qualitative usability test method where changes to the user interface are made as soon as a usability problem is identified and a solution is clear.