Summary Kaplan PCAT 2016-2017 Strategies, Practice, and Review

ISBN-10 1506200907 ISBN-13 9781506200903
618 Flashcards & Notes
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Summary - Kaplan PCAT 2016-2017 Strategies, Practice, and Review

  • 3.1 Cellular Biology

  • Fluid Mosaic Model
    Cell Membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout. The lipids and many of the proteins can move freely within the membrane.
  • Histones
    Structural Proteins, Join with DNA to form chromosomes.
  • Nucleolus
    Dense structure in the nucleus where rRNA synthesis occurs
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Network of membrane enclosed spaces
    • Involved in transport of material throughout cell, especially those to be secreted
  • Rough ER
    Contains Ribosomes, involved in protein production
  • Smooth ER
    Contains no ribosomes, involved in metabolism and production of lipids
  • Golgi Apparatus
    Receives vesicles from smooth ER, modifies and repackages them, distributes via exocytosis
  • Mitochondria
    Sites of respiration, supply energy in form of ATP. Composed of an inner and outer phospholipid bilayer
  • Cytoplasm
    Site of cell's metabolic activity. Contains cytosol and all organelles
  • Vacuoles/ Vesicles
    Membrane bound sacs within the ell. Transport and store materials. Vacuoles > vesicles, mostly found in plants.
  • Centrioles
    Microtubule structures, involved in spindle organization during cell division. Are not membrane bound. Come in pairs organized at right angles to each other. Not found in plant cells
  • Lysosomes
    Membrane bound vesicles containin hydrolytic enzymes. Break down material ingested in cell.
  • Cytoskeleton
    Provides shape/ support of cell. Composed of:

    1. Microtubules - hollow tubes made of tubulin. Provide a framework
    2. Microfilaments - solid rods made of actin, important for cell movement/ support
    3. Intermediate filaments
  • Simple Diffusion
    • Net movement of dissolved particles down concentration gradient
    • Passive, no external energy required
  • Osmosis
    • Simple diffusion of water across a membrane
    • Flows from region of lower solute conc. to higher conc.
  • Plasmolysis
    Osmosis of water flows from inside of cell to outside, causing cell to shrivel
  • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Passive Transport
    • Does not require external energy
    • Net movement of particles down their concentration gradient through special channels or carrier proteins
  • Active Transport
    • Net movement of particles against their concentration gradient via transport proteins
    • Requires external enery
  • Energy independent carriers
    • Active transport carriers
    • facilitate movement of compounds along a concentration gradient
  • Symporters
    • Active Transport Carrier molecule
    • Carries 2 or more ions in the same direction across a membrane
  • Antiporters
    • Active transport carrier molecule
    • Exchanges 2 or more ions for another ion across a membrane
  • Pumps (active transport)
    Energy dependent carriers involved in active transport
  • Pinocytosis
    Endocytosis of fluids or small particles
  • Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis of large particles
  • 3 Methods of Intracellular movement
    • Brownian Movement
    • Cyclosis/ Streaming
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Brownian Movement
    Method of Intracellular circulation, Kinetic energy spreads suspended particles throughout cytoplasm of the cell
  • Cyclosis/ Streaming
    Method of Intracellular circulation, Circular motion of the cytoplasm around the cell transports molecules
  • The cell cycle
    Entire series of events leading to cellular replication
  • Interphase
    • Preceeds Meiosis or Mitosis
    • Period of growth and chromosome replication
    • Cells are in interphase 90% of life
    • Overview: Cell continues normal life function, chromosomes are replicated to form sister chromatids joined at the centromere, DNA is uncoiled in the form of chromatin
    • There are 3 Phases of Interphase followed by M phase (Meiosis or Mitosis)
  • Cells are in this phase of replication for 90% of their life
  • Interphase G1
    • Initiates interphase. 
    • Active growth phase. Cell grows and synthesizes proteins
    • Lenght of G1 determines length of cell cycle
  • Interphase S
    •  Period of DNA synthesis
  • Interphase G2
    • Cells prepare to divide, grows and synthesizes proteins
  • Mitosis
    • Division and distribution of cell's DNA into 2 daughter 
    • Occurs in somatic (non-sex) cells
    • Consists of Nuclear Division (karyokenesis) followed by cell division (cytokinesis)
  • Phases of Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  • Karyokinesis
    Nuclear Division
  • Cytokinesis
    Cell Division
  • Mitosis - Prophase
    • Chromosomes condense
    • Centriole pairs move to opposite ends of cell
    • Spindle apparatus forms
    • Nuclear Membrane dissolves
  • Mitosis - Metaphase
    • Centriole pairs are at opposit ends of the cell
    • Spindle fibers attach to chromatids at kinetochore (protein on chromatid)
    • Spindle fibers align the chromatids on the cell equator, forming the metaphase plate
  • Metaphase Plate
    Alignment of chromatids along the center of thecell during metaphase
  • Mitosis - Anaphase
    • Centromeres Split so each chromatid has itsown centromere
    • Sister chromatids separate, pulled towards oppsoite ends of the cell by shortening of the spindle fibers
  • Mitosis - Telophase
    • Spindle apparatus disappears
    • Nuclear membrane forms around 2 sets of chromosomes
    • Each new nucleus contains the same diploid number as the parent cell
    • Chromosomes uncoil, resuming their interphase form
  • Mitosis - Cytokinesis
    • Cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells
    • Cleavage furrow forms (in animal cells), cell membrane indents pinching around the ell until it separates the 2 nuclei
    • In plant cells, it is a cell plate that forms between the two nuclei, splitting the cell in half
  • Meiosis
    • Reproduction of sexual cells
    • 2 parents are involved
    • Involves fusion of 2 gametes, 2 divisions of primary sex cell, and p
    • First division produces 2 diploid cells
    • Second division produces four haploid daughter cells
  • Meiosis - Prophase 1
    • Chromatin condeses into chromosomes
    • spindle apparatus forms
    • Nuclear membrane disappears
    • Homologous chromosomes intertwine via synapsis forming chromosomes containing 2 sister chromatids, each with a pair of homologous chromosomes = a tetrad
    • Crossing overof homologous chromosomes occurs
  • Tetrad (Meiosis)
    A pair of sister chromatids, containing 2 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Exists in Prophase 1
  • Meiosis - Metaphase 1
    • Tetrads align at equatorial plate
    • Each pair attaches to a spindle fiber at the kinetochore
  • Meiosis - Anaphase 1
    • Homologous pairs separate, pulled to opposite ends of the cell via disjunction
    • Mendelian law states that chromosomes of paternal origin separate from chromosomes of maternal origin, so that the daughter cell will have a unique gene pool of maternal and paternal origin
  • Nondisjunction
    Occurs when cells do not separate correctly during meiosis. Results in daughter cells with incorrect number of chromosomes
  • Meiosis - Telophase 1
    • Nuclear membrane forms around each set of sister chromatids at either side of the cell
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Source: Pineal Gland
Function: Regulates circadian rhythms
Source: Small intestine
Function: Stimulates release of bile from gall bladder to digest fats
Source: Small intestine
Function: stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice (bicarbonate) from pancreas to neutralize acidic food in the stomach
Source: Stomach
Function: stimulates gastric glands to secrete HCl to digest food in the stomach
Parathyroid hormone
Source: Parathyroid gland
Function: Increases blood Ca2+ levels, stimulates release from bone, slows down excretion by kidneys
Type I and II diabetes
Type 1
  • 10% of diabetics
  • <30 years of age usually
  • Cause: Decreased secretion of insulin
  • Non-genetic, non-obesity related

Type II
  • 90% of diabetics
  • >30 years of age usually
  • Cause: Resistance to insulin
  • Genetic, obesity-related
Source: Pancreas
Function: Decrease blood glucose levels (stimulates formation of glycogen, fat synthesis and uptake of amino acids)
Disorders: Diabetes mellitus
Source: pancreas
Function: stimulates protein and fat degradation, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis (increase blood glucose levels)
Source: Thyroid
Functions: Decrease blood Ca2+ levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity. antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
Thyroid hormones
Source: Thyroid gland
Functions: Affect growth, neurological development, maintenance of metabolic stability
Disorders: Hypothyroidism (slowed HR, slowed breathing, fatigue, cold intolerance, weight gain), Cretinism (hypothyroidism in newborns, mental retardation, short stature), Hyperthyroidism (increased metabolic rate, excessive warmth, sweating, palpations, weight loss, protruding eyes)

** in both cases, thyroid enlarges forming a goiter