Summary Leaderschip & organization

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Summary - Leaderschip & organization

  • 1 Theories of Leaderschip

  • Name the three major perspectives in leadership theory
    -characteristics of the leader - i.e. traits (motives, personality), value and moral development, confidence and optimism, skills and expertise, influence tactictics, attributions about followers, beliefs and assumptions

    -characteristics of the follower - i.e. traits (needs, value, self-concept), confidence and optimism, skills and expertise, attributions about the leader, identification with the leader, task commitment and effort, satisfaction with job and leader, cooperation and mutual trust. 

    -characteristics of the situation- i.e. type and size of organizational unit, position power, task structure and complexity, organizational culture, enviromental uncertainty and change, external dependencies and constraints
  • Explain the  self-confidence benefits and disadvantages
    benefits: you see yourself as more competence then you really are. 
    disadvantage: lead to misinterpretation of a situation or being to bossy (cow-fence)
  • explain the great man theory
    this explains that leaders are born not made
  • explain the trait theory
    trait theory comes from the great man theory were they tried to identify common attributes among great leaders. The downside of this theory is that there are alot of attibutes and traits which you can attempt but there is not a combination for all curcomstances. 
  • Behavioral theory: Name the differences between Theory X & Theory Y Managers
    Theory X managers believe that people..:
    • dislike to work and will avoid it.
    • coerced, directed, or threatened with punishment to achieve organizational objectives.
    • prefers to be directed, avoids responsibility, little ambition and wants security above all.
    Theory Y managers believe that people: 
    • learns to accept and  seek responsibility
    • will exercise self-direction and self-control
    • use solving  problems, ingenuity and creativity
    • intellectual potentialities utilized in  modern industrial life conditions. 
  • Behavioral Theories: explain the concepts Concer for People and Concern for production
    Concern for People (y-as) refers to emphasis on the need of team members their interest and areas of personal development when deciding how est to accomplish a task 
    Concern for Production (x-as): Emphasis on concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how to best accomplish a task. 


    -Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid
      countryclub style  | team style                   
    improverished style| produce or perish style

    improverished style is low job performance and job satisfaction
    countryclub style is low on job performance and high on job satisfaction
    procuce or perish style is high on performance and employee needs are on second place
    team style: employees are commitment and organizational succes

    middle of the road style: neither production nor people are fully met.
  • explain the Contigency theories of Fiedler's LPC Contingency model
    Leadership style measured with the Least Preffered Co-worker scale  shows that scoring low on every domain shows that Low LPC which refers to a task leadership orientation. Scoring high on every domain show High LPC which refers to a relationship leader orientation. 

    -Fiedler also believed that situations could be classified in terms of favoribleness (situation control)determind by 3 factors:
    1. leader member relation
    2. task structue-degree of job structure 
    3. position power- authority of the manager
  • explain path-goal contigency theory, give two forms of path-goal theory
    The theory states that a leader's behavior is contingent to the satisfaction, motivation and performance of her or his subordinates. 
    - task oriented:  task are complex and difficult, and employee have little to no experiences

    -supportive leadership: task is very tedious dangerous, or stressful. 
  • according to Fiedler's LPC contigency model task oriented leaders do well when:
    - good leader-member relationship
    -task are structured
    -position power is at an extreme ( weak or strong)
    -tasks are unstructured but position power is strong

    In other situations relationship-oriented leaders will do better
  • Contigency theories:Explains the Hersey-blanchard Model of leadership. give a couple examples.
    According to Hersey-blanchard model task behavior is extent to which the leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsibilities to an individual or group. relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in two ways or multi-way communications. maturity refers to the willingness and ability of a person to take responsibility for directing his or her own behavior.

    directing: high task, low relationship
    coaching: both high
    supporting: low task, high relationship
    delegating: both low
  • contigency theoryies: Explain adair's action-centered leadership model
    it is Adair's three core overlapping circles which measures management responsibilities:
    • achieving the task 
    • support and review individuals
    • managing the team or group
  • theorie stransformational leadership, explain short what transformational means
    Transformational leadership enhances the motivation, morale, and job performance of followers. being a role model for followers that inspires them and makes them interested.They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.
    charismatic leader 
  • What are important characters for a charismatic leader?

    *Novel and appealing vision
    * Emotional appeal to values
    * Unconventional behavior
    * Self sacrifice
    * Confidence
    * Optimism
  • 2 Leading a Culture of Innovation

  • What do Jung, Chow, and Wu present as an important factor in enhancing organizational innovation?
    Transformational leadership -> support for innovation -> organizational innovation (r2=0.33)
    Transformational leadership -> empowerment -> organizational innovation (r2=0.02)

    intotal r2=0.48
  • What is necessary according to Ahmed for an organization for increasing the innovative output?
    -synergy= diversity (e.g. the parts) x cohesion( integration) x empowerment (you need gas)
  • What is Reverse engineering
     the process of extracting knowledge. Often involves disassembling something and analyzing its component parts and working in detail. 
  • In Synergy, diversity will lead to...cohesion will lead to....and the interaction will lead to...
    1. explosion, 2. implosion, 3 empowerment. 
  • in Synergy, team performance will lead to outcomes through two things, which?
    innovation, implementation. 
  • Living abroad predicts creativity, give the mediation level and its correlation. 

                                 adaptation | 0.35
                           ^                      V
                   0.01  |
    time lived abroad --r=0.01--> creativity
  • what is a T-shaped employee
    it is an employee with to things, first: collaborative potential, second: depth of expertise in one area.
  • collective intelligence factor (c) predicts the performance of humans groups, which ones do not predict c and which do. 
    do not: cohesion, motivation, and satisfaction.
    tested were: social sensitivity, speaking turn variance, and percent female. 
    do: social sensitivity is as the only one significant correlated to C. 
  • What does the studie tell us about physical proximity and social ties?
    physical proximity and social ties are related to each other. with other words to more doors you are away of your own the fewer people you know. small distances played a big rol in social ties.
  • What is a tangible shared goal?
    a product-focused approach, from strategy to talent management are designed around 'the product'. 
  • Fail often to succeed sooner : steelcase's hackett
  • When stop taking risk, that is the moment that you get left behind. Taking risk creates innovation, so we have to change the perception of taking risk
  • How can you minimize status within the team and create status for the team?
    maximize group status: winning titles, good publicity.
    minimizing status within group: run the organization by ideas, not hierarchy. 
  • what is autonomy and name 3 basic elements
    Acting with freedom to meet organizational objectives with accountability. does not mean complete independence. 
    1) choice over task
    2) choice over time
    3) choice over technique
  • what is the set-up strategies which lead to team processes. 
    Cross-functional diversity and physical proximity leads to diversity
    shared goals, norms, shared activities leads to cohesion. status maximized for the group and minimized within the group leads to empowerment
  • Teams in Organisations: What is a team?
    A group of people who are interdependent with respect to information, resources and skills and who seek to combine their efforts to achieve a common goal.
  • Team in Organisations: What are the 5 key defining characteristics of teams?
    1. Exist to achieve a shared goal
    2. members are interdependent regarding a common goal
    3. are bounded and remain relatively stable over time
    4. members have the authority to manage their own work and internal processes
    5. operate in a larger social system context 
  • What is a working group?
    A group of people who learn from one another and share ideas, but are not interdependent in an important fashion and are not working toward a shared goal. 
  • State 2 reasons why organisations should have teams (Team in Org.):
    • Teams and teamwork are not a novel concept
    • teams can be more effective than traditional hierarchical structure for making decisions quickly and efficiently. 
  • Team in Org.: 4 challenges of the future that point to the importance of teams:
    • customer service focus
    • competition
    • emergence of the information age
    • globalization
  • What types of teams in organisations are there?
    1. Manager-led teams
    2. Self-managing or self-regulating teams
    3. Self-directing or self-designing teams
    4. Self-governing teams
  • What is a manager-led team?
    A team in which the manager acts as the team leader and is responsible for defining the goals, methods, and functioning of the team.
  • What is a self-managing or self-regulating team?
    A team in which a manager or leader determines overall purpose or goal of the team, but the team is at liberty to manage methods by which to achieve goals. 
  • What is a self-directing or self-designing team?
    Teams that determine their own objectives and methods by which to achieve objectives. 
  • What is a self-governing team?
    Teams responsible for executing tasks, managing their own performance processes, designing the group, and designing the organisational context. 
  • Some observations about teams and teamwork:
    • Companies that use teams are not more effective than those that do not
    • Managers fault the wrong causes for team failure (the misattribution error is the tendency to attribute the causes of team failure to forces beyond managers' personal control)
    • Managers fail to recognise their team-building responsibilities 
    • Experimenting with failures leads to better teams  
    • Conflict among team members is not always a bad thing 
    • Strong leadership is not always necessary for strong teams
    • Good teams can still fail under the wrong circumstances 
    • Retreats will not fix all conflicts between team members 
  • Team in Org.: What is the most common type of teams?
    -> Cross-fuctional project group (service, operations, marketing)
  • Team in Org.: team size
    Teams should gernerally be less than 10 members (5 or 6 is optimum)
  • Team in Org.: What are the most frustrating aspect of teamwork?
    • developing and sustaining high motivation
    • minimising confusion and coordination problems 
  • Team in Org.: What are the 6 most desired aspects of managerial education?
    1. Developing and sustaining high motivation
    2. Developing clear goals
    3. Fostering creativity and innovation
    4. Training 
    5. Minimising confusion and coordination problems 
  • Team in Org.: What are the 3 steps (with sub steps) to develop your team-building sills?
    1. Sill 1: Accurate diagnosis of team problems
    • Sampling on the dependent variable
    • Hindsight bias
    2. Skill 2: Theory-based intervention
    3. Skill 3: Expert Learning
    • Single-loop versus double-loop learning
    • Inert knowledge problem 
  • Double-loop learning means?
    Learning that involves a reciprocal interchange between two parities (i.e., a leader and his/her team)
  • Def. of group:
    A collection of two or more people who can affect each other's outcomes by their own actions. 
  • What is the hindsight bias?
    A pervasive tendency for people to be remarkably adept at inferring a process once the outcome is known but unable to predict outcomes when the processes and precipitating events are unknown. 
  • What is the inert knowledge problem?
    The inability to recall knowledge that we actually possess. 
  • What is the misattribution error?
    The tendency for people to attribute the cause of failure to forces beyond their personal control. 
  • What is single-loop learning?
    Learning in which interactions between parties are primarily one-dimensional, rather than reciprocal. 
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5.2 What does the stage of "Configuring and leveraging resources" imply?
Effective leaders should understand that they should try to bring individuals with complementary capabilities together. The most critical dimension of successful and sought-after strategic leadership - is providing the direction, influence, facilitation and empowerment such that group members realize their potential to create value for the firm. 
Moreover, strong social capital reduces the need for and costs of monitoring. In effect, leaders must develop ‘’meta-capabilities’’ to coordinate and integrate partners in a relationship between the firms. This process is described as configuring and leveraging resources as effectuation. 
5.2 What does the stage of "changing resource stocks" imply?
This involves adding and deleting resources. Leaders must decide what new or different capabilities are needed and take actions to obtain them. This can require significant effort but more challenging is the decision to eliminate some human capital (like layoffs or downsizing). It is also important to change some human capital of the firm to prevent the loss of the ability to explore new advantages. 

5.2 What does the stage of"evaluating resource stocks" imply?
This stage is important to identify strengths as well as deficiencies. The most effective strategic leaders evaluate the firms stocks of human capital and social capital taking actions to improve these resources when needed. 

Intimate knowledge with employees is useful for evaluating the firm’s intangible capabilities. It is also important to evaluate the quality of the relationships and assess the probability of continuing access to the partners resources (semi-strong or strong form of trust is needed).

5.2 There are 4 stages a strategic manager can use to manage the firms resources. Name them.
  1. Evaluating resource stocks
  2. Changing resource stocks
  3. & 4. Configuring and leveraging resources 
5.2 What does External social capital imply?
External social capital: relationships between strategic leader and those outside the organization whom they interact with to further the firm’s interests. It creates formal and informal alliances to gain access to complementary and needed resources. This access may affect a firm’s competitive advantage but also could contribute to its survival over time. For an alliance to be beneficial, both partners must benefit from the relationship and meet their goals. 
5.2 What does Internal social capital imply?
Internal social capital: relationships across all of an organizations work units. Strategic leaders must build effective relationships with those in the group and create a culture of trust. Trust engenders transactions to be completed more effectively, work teams to be more effective and human capital to be more readily exercise its creativity. It increases the likelihood that employees will fully commit to working towards achieving the firm’s vision and goals.
5.2 Which are the 2 sorts of social capital that exist?
  • Internal social capital
  • External social capital
5.2 What is social capital?
It involves the relationships between individuals and organizations that facilitate action and create value. It’s a web of relationships that includes norms, values and obligations but also yields potential opportunities for the holders of the capital. 
5.2 Of what is human capital a determinant?
Human capital may be a determinant of economic growth for nations as well as individual firms since it is of critical importance in contributing to higher income, life satisfaction and social cohesion. It represents skills, knowledge and abilities and it is reflected by ones education, experience and specific identifiable skills. It is often a firms most unique resource.
5.2 What are the 2 most important resources available to strategic leaders?
Human capital in their unit and their own social capital.