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Summary - Lecture Notes

  • 1 What is animal breeding?

  • What is selective breeding?
    Only use males and females for breeding that have passed a certain quality criterion
  • What is the predefined goal of animal breeding?
    To genetically improve the population in a certain direction
  • What is a good definition of animal breeding?
    Animal breeding involes the selective breeding of domestic animals with the intention to improve desirable (and heritable) qualties in the next generation
  • What are the 5 important points to realise?
    1 - For selective breeding to be successful it is essential that the trait under selection is heritable
    2 - And that animals have different genetic backgrounds so that selection is possible
    3 - The direction of selection is defined by humans and they decide which animals are allowed to mate and produce members of the next generation
    4 - Success of animal breeding can be judged by looking at a shift in population average phenotype from one generation to the next. So animal breeding works at population level, not automatically at individual level
    5 - Success of animal breeding can be measured as the cumulative result of multiple generation of selection. Breeding decisions are made with the future in mind
  • What is a trait?
    A distinguishing phenotypic charasteristic, typically belonging to an individual.
  • What is a phenotype?
    That what you observe or measure on the animal for a certain trait
  • What is natural selection?
    The process whereby animals that are better adapted to their environment have a higher chance to survive and produce more offspring than less adapted animals. The nex generation thus, on average, will be more adaopted than the current
  • What is domestication?
    The process of conversion of wild animals to domestic use
  • What are the prerequisites for domestication?
    1 - The animals should be able to adaopt to the type of feed they are offered by humans. This may be different from what they were used to in the wild
    2 - Animal must be able to survive and reproduce in relative closed quarters of captivity. Animals that need a very large territory are not suitable to domesticated
    3 - Animals need to be naturally calm. Very skittish or flighty animals will be hard to prevent escaping
    4 - Animals need to be willing to recognise humans as their superior, which means they must have flexible social hierarchy
  • What is progeny testing?
    The method of evaluating performance of the first (small) group of progeny and use that information to select the best father of future progeny
  • What is a breed?
    A group of animals of a certain species that through generations of selective breeding has become uniform in performance, appearance and selection history
  • What is a species?
    The largest group of animals that are capable of interbeeding and producing fertile offspring
  • What has artificial insemination done?
    To have very large numbers of offspring per father, so it made it possible to select only the best males for breeding without decreasing the population in size
  • What is the negative correlated response?
    When selective breeding has not only improved certain performances, but simultaneously and unintendidly also deteriorated other performances that were not under selection
  • What is PTA?
    predicted transmitting abilities. Are used (in the UK) to indicate what part of the breeding value is transmitted to the offspring
  • 2 Defining breeding goal and setting up a breeding program

  • What are the 2 main questions for setting up a breeding program?
    1 - Where to go?
    2 - How to go there?
  • What are the 7 steps of setting up a breeding program?

    1 - Describe the production system
    2 - Formulate breeding goal
    3 - Data recording
    4 - Breeding value estemation and selection criteria
    5 - Selection and mating
    6 - Dissemination
    7 - Evaluate breeding program 
  • What things are important to know describing the production system?

    - What is the location of the animal production
    - What is the purpose of the animal
  • What does the breeding goal define?

    Which traits are to be improved and how much weight (emphasis) is given to each trait
  • What charasteristics has a breeding goal?
    - The breeding goal often consist of a combination of traits
    - The breeding goal should ideally summarize all traits in a single criterion
    - The breeding goal contains breeding values
    - The breeding goal contains (economic) values to weigh the traits
    - The breeding goal should aim at the future
    - Breeding goals may contain economic and non-economic weights
  • What is the abbreviation for breeding goal?
  • What is A?

    the true breeding value
  • What is v?

    the (economic) value
  • So what is the formula of the breeding goal?

    H= A1v1+A2v2+A3v3.. etc
  • What does the breeding goal specify?
    Which traits should be improved, in which direction and the relative emphasis given to each trait
  • What are the 2 common approaches to define breeding goals?

    - To express breeding goals as a weighted sum of economic values and breeding values
    - To express the breeding goal as a set of desired gains for each trait
  • What are the 2 economic models used to derive economic value?

    - Profit - equation
    - Bio-economic model
  • What is a profit equation?

    Relates the profit of an animal or farm to phenotypic trait levels (P1) in the breeding goal
  • What is the profit equation?

    Profit= (R1-C1)P1+(R2-C2)P2+(R3-C3)P3...
  • What is R-C?

    Represents the difference between the marginal revenues and marginal costs
  • How can economic values be calculated?
    As the difference in margninal revenues and costs either by taking the derivative of a profit equation
  • How can a breeding goal be based on non-economic values?

    By formulating a breeding goal based on desired genetic gains
  • What are goal factors?

    Weighing factors in breeding goals.
  • Wat is a goal value?

    May include a current market, economic component, a component that reflects he benefit of using an animal with a superior genotype as well as a non-current market component
  • How can breeding goals be expressed?
    In terms of economic values, which express the increase in profit due to a single unit improvement of a trait, or a desired genetic gains
  • What is a breeding program?

    The organized structure that is set up in order to realize the desired genetic improvement in the population
  • What is breeding value estimation?

    Refers to the statistical procedure that is used to estimate the breeding values of selection candidates
  • What are estimated breeding values?

    Are the estimates if the genetic merit of an animal
  • What is selection?

    Refers to the process of choosing parent to produce the next generation
  • What is mating?

    The pairing of the selected individual
  • What determines the breeding goal?

    The production system
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What is the correlation of parent-offspring?
What is the addtitive genetic relationship
The correlation between true breeding values
Why would phenotypes show some resamblance?
-Inherited the same genes
- Partly the same environment
What does the correlation express?
Expreses the strength of the relationship between two traits
What is correlation?
Correlation is a standardized covariance and shows the strength of the linear relation
What is covariance?
Covariance is a measure of how much two random veriables change together
What are circulating breeding schemes?
An effeicient method to control the rate of inbreeding provided the population is of sufficient size
How can expansion of the size of the breeding population be achieved?
By reducing selection intensity, introducing new animals of the same breed but from a different population, or introducing animals of a different breed
What are measuren that can be taken to slow down the incease of the average additive relationship?
- Expansion of the size of the breeding population
- Restrictions o the number of offspring per parent
- Mating schemes to control and manage relationships
Where does the rate of inbreeding consist of?
An aviodable and unaviodable component