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Summary - Lectures

  • 1 Organic Trends

  • How did organics starts?
    As a philosophical approach; healthy soil= healthy food= healthy people
  • What are the organic principles?
    - Farm as living organisms
    - Inherent fertility
    - Intrinsic linkage
    - Pragmatic
    - Principle of health
    - Principle of ecology
    - Principle of fairness
    - Principle of care
  • What does farm as living organisms mean?
    Closing of cycles (nutrients) system that is responsive and adapted to its environment
  • What does inherent fertility mean?
    A 'living soil' transfers health and vitalit to elements higher in the food chain
  • What does intrinsic linkage mean?
    An intergrated and complex system that is self regulating though dynamic processes
  • What is pragmatic?
    Innovations may be obtained through on farm experimentation. observation and traditional research using rational and scientific approaches
  • What is the principle of health?
    Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of the soil, plant, animal, human and planet
  • What is the principle of ecology?
    Organic agriculture should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, enhance and sustain them
  • What is the principle of fairness?
    Organic agriculture should build on relationships that ensure fairness regarding the environment and humans
  • What is the principle of care?
    Organic agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment
  • What is biodynamic agriculture?
    Anthroposophic approach based on awareness of the spiritual dimensions
  • What are the charasteristics of biodynamic agriculture?
    - Comprehensive and intergrated (mixed) farming system
    - Animal welfare
    - Site-specific rotations: rooting & soil feeding characteristics
    - Use of seeding and harvesting calendar
    - Use of organic amendments to vitalize the soil
    - Use of special preparations to enhance soul humus formations and composting processes
    - Special certification label
    - Globally 142,482 ha certified as biodynamic
  • What are the market trends in organic agriculture?
    - Most products sold in supermarkets
    - Diversification of marketing strategies
    - Food processed/consumed in developed regions
  • What are opportunities and threats when most products are sold in supermarkets?
    - Allow efficient marketing and distribution
    - Facillitates growth and expansion
    - Increased specialization, intensification and price pressure
    - Biases towards large scale production
    - Risk of conventionalization of organic food networks
  • What are the opportunities with diversification of marketing strategies?
    - Increased adaptive capacity
    - Improved resilience of organic farmers and food networks
  • What are the opportunities and threaths with food processed/consumed in developed regions?
    - Increased food miles
    - Decrease in consumer participation and local food security
    - Disconnect between producers and consumers
  • 2 System Analysis

  • What is a system?
    - A limited part of reality that contains interrelated elements
    - Groups of parts (or sub-systems) that are interacting to some kind of process
    - System as a whole is different from the sum of its parts
  • What are the elements of a system?
    - Inputs
    - Outputs
    - Boundary
    - Interrelationships
    - Components
  • What is important in systems design?
    - Structure determines behaviour as a whole in response to stimuli to any part
  • What is the definition of a farming system?
    - Multiple dimensions
    - Governed by natural processes
    - Influenced by management and design
    - System definition depending on research questions
  • What do we look at when we do systems analysis?
    - System properties in relation to their own structure and functioning
    - System properties in relation to changes in external driving variables
  • What are system properties in relation to their own structure and functioning?
    - Productivity/efficiency
    - Diversity (structure)
    - Stability
  • What are system properties in relation to changes in external driving variables?
    - Reliability
    - Adaptability
    - Resillience
  • What is redesign?
    A continuous process in which Multi-criteria evaluations play a central role
  • What are the steps of redesign?
    - We compare systems through comparing indicators
    - Indicators are choses to reperesent key system properties
    - System properties reflect structural and functional charasteristics of a system
  • Which levels of inergration and systems design are there?
    - Optimisation of existing techniques
    - Redesign of products and processes
    - Innovaion of system functions
    - Novel system
  • What is an agroecosystem?
    An ecosystem that has been modified by humans for the production of food, fibre, energy and services; agroecosystems have multiple dimenstions. Their funcioning can be influenced through design
  • Why are system properties important?
    When it comes to choosing indicators to evaluate and monitor sustainability
  • Where does system analysis consists of?
    haracterizing their structure, dynamics and fuctions; some system properties depend on internal processes, while other emerge as a respponse to changes in external drivers
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What are the advatages of consumers of the subscription sysem?
- Food from well-known source: ecologically sound and socially equitable
What are the advatages for the farmer of the subscription system?
- No marketing required
- No price risks
- Timely payment by consumers
What are the main charasteristics of the nieuwe ronde?
- Pick-your-own subscripption system
- CSA farm
What are posive environmental externalities?
- biodiversity maintanance
- Ecosystems functioning
What are negative environmental externalities?
- Damage to soil, water, air
- Biodiversity loss
- Non-renewable resource use
What are the food & farming trends?
- Food rights and justice
- Local food
- Food deserts and food sheds
- Urban farming
- Emerging students' food revolution
- People can be food citizends
- Multi value shopping
- Real cost of food en farming
Why support organic farming?
- Infant sector
- Deliver public goods
What is involved in inspectation and certificaion?
Governmental institutions, private organizations, NGOs
Who is involved in extension?
Extension, service (State and private) farmers, NGOs
Who is involved in education?
Universities, schools, NGIO's