# Summary Lectures ANU

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• ## 2 Lecture 05-01-2021 Intro laberatory practical

• Analyses of diet composition:
1. Calculation of table value
2. Conducting analysis
• Calculation analysis:
Easy, cheap, less accurate
• Conducting analysis:
Expensive but more accurate
• Kjedal method determines:
Amino groups
• Crude fibre:
Organic fraction which is not soluble in acid
• Carbohydrates are the heterogeneous group, divided into:
crude fibre and N-free extractives (starch and sugars)
• Weender analysis is comparable with other countries, about own food, not about table
• Analysis for more specific ingredient determination: require more labour so more expensive
• NIR (near infrared spectroscopy) is alternative for weender. Principle: absorption of solid sample within NIR spectrum. Correlation between amount of a nutrient and absoprtion at wavelenght
All analysis in one run, no sample preparation, low costs
Correlation between different feed ingredients, results not accepted for scientific work
• Ash fraction supplies calcium, phosphate and other ions to the body
• Protein content of 300g/kg. 1kg diet and 0,5kg water contains 300 g protein:
content of protein = 300 : 1,5 = 200 g/kg
• Nutrient (DM) = nutrient (measured) * 1000 (g/kg) / content of dry matter (g/kg)
• Content based on dry matter is independent of moisture content and storage conditions, so the results are better comparable
• What goes in, what goes out, all that is gone is digested/absorbed
• Determination of digestibility. Quantitative estimation
• Marker method:
use substance that is not absorbed by the animal. Absolute amount is same in diet as in manure. Less laborus
• marker calculation:
Amount of diet * content marker in diet = amount of faeces * content marker in faeces
• Faeces vs marker method: marker is easier to perform, no estimation of the amount of diet and faeces needed.
disadvantage: based on assumption behaviour of the marker
• In poultry, faeces and urine is mixed (manure), nitrogen correction is needed
• ## 3 Lecture 06-01-2021 Thematic intro and digestion

• Important!
.
• Endogenous losses examples:
Digestive enzymes, pancreatic juices, epithelial cells, mucus, microbal protein, NAFs
• 'Pool system': input --> pool --> output
push pull system, we know what we want as output, so adapt pool
• Hindgut fermenters: Enzymatic digestion with use of:
Animal specific enzymes
• Foregut fermenters: fermentative digestion, animal has:
Microbiota
• Types of digestive systems
Monogastric and polygastric
• Monogastric digestion system: omnivorous non-ruminants like pigs, with non functioning cecum (like humans).
herbivores with functional cecum, but non-ruminant like horses.
• Polygastric digestion system: omnivorous with ceca (poultry) or herbivorous with 3-4 stomach compartments (ruminants)
• What are the stomachs of a ruminant called?
Reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum
• Function rumen
Fermentation/microbiota (breakdown cell walls)
• Function abomasum
HCL / pepsine start protein breakdown
• Function duodenum
Digestion with enzymes from the pancreas
• Function jejunum and illeum (small intestine)
Digestion and absorption of nutrients (lipids and carbohydrates)
• Function rectum
Waterresorption and antiperistaltic movements in poultry
• Function colon in dogs
Fermentation / microbiota (energy)
• Function proventriculus in poultry
HCL / pepsine start protein breakdown
• Protein requirements for maintenance
GIT, skin, hair, nails, organs
• Protein requirements for production
Milk, eggs, muscle tissue (so growth)
• Relative turnover = fraction * %/days
• Lysine requirement does not change for different age and size of pigs
• Absorption is:
The effective passage through the gut wall into the plasma
• Negative digestibility is when there is more nitrogen in the small intenstine than what you have feeded
• Lysine is less digestible in corn than in SBM
• Digestibility calculation when you know exact feed intake:
DCn = (100-faeces/diet)*100%
DC = ((feed- faecal excretion)/feed)*100%
• Faecal digestibility = (feed - faecal excretion) / feed

Ileal digestibility = (feed - passage end of ileum) / feed
• Apparent digestibility coeficient = (feed-faecal)/feed
• True digestibility coefficient = (feed-(faecal -endogenous losses)/feed
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What part of roughage is not degradable for horses?
Ligand
What causes colic in horses?
1. Diets with little fibre and a lot of starch
2. spring grass with too much sugars
3. rapid diet changes
What causes gastric ulcers in horses?
Eating too much concentrate and not enough chewing activity
Where do we not want too much starch in the horse and why?
In the hindgut, because of fermenting acids and gasses
What does grass not contain, but sport concentrates does?
Starch
Properties of beet pulp:
High Ca/P ratio, a lot of fibre, peptins (soluble fibers). It can only be fermented, not digested
Function vitamin C
Enhances muscle metabolism
Function vitamin B complex
Important in energy metabolism
Function vitamin K
Coagulation of blood (prevents too much bleeding)
Function vitamin E (tocoferol)
Enhances muscle metabolism
anti-oxidant