Summary Linux Essentiel

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Summary - Linux Essentiel

  • 1 Chapter 1- Introduction to Linux

  • Linux
    Kernel of the system; core of the operating system
  • 1.2 Linux is a Kernel

  • GNU/Linux
    Defines the operating system
  • GNU
    Free software that provides open source equivalents of many common UNIX commands
  • Kernel
    Is loaded at boot time and stays running to manage every aspect of the functioning system
  • The story of Linux
    • UNIX, developped at AT&T Bell labs, 1970
    • Linux, started as a hobby project of Linus Torvalds (a Finnish-born computer scientist University of Helsinki), in 1991 --> frustated by the licensing of MINIX and the desire not to make it a full operating system 
    • GNU Project by Richard Stallman, 1983. Wanted to built their own operating system, but they were more effective at builiding tools for UNIX-like operating system. 
  • Unix is written in the C language
    advantage: portable amongst various operating systems, wich were closely tied to the hardware for which they were written.
  • What is the Open Group
    An industry consortium (only software that has been certified by the Open group may call itself UNIX)
  • 1.3 Linux is Open Source

  • Close-source software
    You get the right to use the machine code, but cannot see the source code
  • Open source software
    You have a right to obtain the software source code and to modify it for your own use
  • Linux happens to be written in C. This decision turned out to be crucial in its nearly universal adoption as the primary operating system for internet servers.
  • 1.4 Linux has Distributions

  • Distribution
    Kernel, tools and suite of applications that come bundled together
  • Package manager
    To help you add and remove software after the installation is copmlete
  • 1.5 Linux embraces the CLI

  • Graphical user interface (GUI)
    • applications present themselves in windows (can be resized and moved around)
    • menues and tools
  • Command line interface (CLI)
    • a texted-baed interface 
    • relies on keyboard input
    • by typing commands instead of clicking on icons 
  • 2 Operating Systems

  • Long-term supportt (LTS)
    Associated with the life cycle of distributions, this feature states that software supported for 5 years or more
  • Stable
    A software release whose updates have been tested in the field
  • Operating system is software that runs on a computing device and manages the hardware and software components that make up a functional computing system
  • 2.1 Operating systems

  • Tasks of the operating system
    - manage hardware and software resources
    - schedule programs to run in a multi-tasking manner
    - provide standard services that allow users and programs to request something to happen
  • The three major operating systems
    Microsoft Windows, Aplle macOS and Linux
  • Role 
    -Servers; run as a CLI, which frees up resources for the real purpose of the computer: serving information to clients
    - Deskop systems primarily run a GUI for the ease of use of their users,
  • Release cycle
    Operating systems and software upgrades come on a periodic basis
  • Maintenance cycle, life cycle
    When vendors only support older versions of software for a certain period of time before not offering any updates
  • Virtualization
    When one phyisical machine can host multiple machines (to decrease space and power requirements).
  • Cloud servies providers
    Amazon Web service, Rackspace and Microsoft Azure
  • Beta software
    Software realse has many new features that haven't been tested
  • Stable software
    After being tested in the field
  • Backward compatibility
    The ability of later operating systems to be compatible with software made for earlier versions
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Command ln -s target link_name
Create a symbolic link
Symbolic links /soft link
A file that points to another file
Command ln target link_name
Create hardlinks (target = existing file) (link_name new file)
Inode number
Every file on a partition has a unique identification number (ls -i)
Data blocks
Pointers to other blocks on the file system
Inode table
Sticky bit permission
Used to prevent other users from deleting files that they do not own in a shared directory
Remove the setgid permission numerically (-2000)
Chmod 0775 <file|directory>
Remove the setgid permission symbolically
Chmod g-s <file|directory>
Add the setgid permission numerically (755 org) (add 2000)
Chmod 2775 <file|directory>