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Summary - Living in the environment
wow duurzaamheid is belangrijk
wat is duurzaamheid?belangrijk
1.1 What are three principles of sustainability
What is environmental science?
A study of connections in nature. Key component is ecology (ecosystem).
How does nature work, how do we interact with the environment and how do we live more sustainably? An ecosystem is a set of organisms in an area.
What is natures survival strategy?
It follows three principles of sustainability: solar energy, biodiversity and chemical cycling.
The sun: supports photosynthesis, which releases nutrients and chemicals, and has indirect effect on wind and water.
Biodiversity: gives natural services as renewal topsoil, pestcontrol, air&water purification. Provides way to adapt to environmental conditions.
Chemical cycling: nutrient cycling, is the way that life sustains itself.
Sustainable yield: highest rate of use of a renewable resources without reducing available supply.
What are the key components of sustainability?
Natural capital, natural resources and natural services.
Natural capital exists out of natural resources (useful materials and energy) and natural services (processes in nature which support life and our economy).
What kind of resources do we have?
Perpetual resources (sun), renewable resources, non-renewable resources.
Perpetual resources: Last atleast 6 billion years
Renewable resources: A resource that takes anywhere from several days to several hundred of years to be replenished through natural process.
Non-renewable resources: we can reuse and recycle non-renewable resources.
Why do countries differ in levels of unsustainability?
Economic growth and development influences the sustainability
Economic growth is measured by GDP (gross domestic product). More-developed countries contain only 19% of the worlds population, but use about 88% of all resources and produce 75% of the worlds waste.
1.1.1 Environmental science is a study of connections in nature
What is environment?Everything around us (Albert Einstein: "Everything that isn't me"). It includes the living and the nonliving things (air, water and energy) with which we interact in a complex web of relationships that connect us to one another and to the world we live in.
Despite our many scientific and technological advances, we are utterly dependent on the environment for clean air and water, food, shelter, energy and everything else we need to stay alive and healty. As a result, we are part of, and not apart from, the rest of nature.
What is environmental science?An interdisciplinary study of how humans interact with the living and nonliving parts of their environment.
It integrates information and ideas from:
- natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology)
- social sciences (geography, economics, political science)
- humanities (philosophy, ethics)
What are the three goals of environmental science?1 Learn how nature works
2 Understand how we interact with the environment
3 Find ways to deal with environmental problems and to live more sustainably
What is a key component of environmental science?Ecology
What is ecology?The biological science that studies relationships between living organisms and their environment.
What are organisms?Living things
Every organism is a member of a certain species.
What is a species?A group of organisms that have a unique set of characteristics that distinguish them from all other organisms and, for organisms that reproduce sexually, can mate and produce fertile offspring.
What is a major focus of ecology?The study of ecosystems
What is an ecosystem?A set of organisms within a defined area or volume that interact with one another and with their environment of nonliving matter and energy.
We should not confuse environmental science and ecology with environmentalism.
What is environmentalism?A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life-support systems for all forms of life.
Environmentalism is practiced more in the political and ethical arenas than in the realm of science.
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positive: flow positively affects its own inflow or negatively affects its outflow: increases its stock .
2. fluxes (amount per time: determines the state variable e.g. kg/day)
3. model parameters (relative amount per time: influences the fluxes absolute amount. e.g. % interest rate per year).
noemer x noemer
2. power and roots
3. multiplications and divisions
4. additions and subtractions
A horizon - topsoil
B horizon - subsoil
C horizon - parent material