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Summary - Macroeconomics
1 A tour of the world
SAMENVATTINGEN VAN MARCOECONOMIE MOET JE NOG BESTELLEN!
184.108.40.206 Europe and the Euro
At which free variables do economists look first, when studying an economy?
- The unemployment rate
- The inflation rate
The economic performance of European countries after the turn of the millennium has not been as good as it was in the 1990s, what are 4 characteristics of this period?
- Average annual output growth reflected a significant slowdown in all of the largest European economies since 2008, and a recession in 2009.
- Low output growth was accompanied by persistently high unemployment.
- The only good news is about inflation. Average annual inflation was 1.9% in the EU and 1% in the euro area.
- In the economies of central Europe inflation jumped during the transition but it stabilised in the following decade.
Which three issues dominate the agenda of European macro-economists?
- High unemployment
- Growth of income per person
- Common currency
There is still disagreement about the causes of high European unemployment, what is the general opinion of politicians and what of macro-economists?
- Politicians: often blame macroeconomic policy.
- Most economists believe, however, that the source of the problem is labour market institutions.
- Some economists point to what they call labour market rigidities.
- Other economists emphasise the fact that unemployment is not high everywhere in Europe.
Where do supporters of the Euro point at?
Supporters of the euro point first to its enormous symbolic importance: after a long history of wars and conflicts,a large number of European countries are now linked by a common currency
Where do skeptics of the Euro point at?
... Others worry that the
symbolismof the euromay come with some economic costs: the recent crisis that hit the euroand the eurocountries is among those costs
220.127.116.11 The economic outlook in the USA
What can we say about the economy of the USA in the past decades?
- From an economic point of view, there is no question that the 1990s were amongst the best years in recent memory.
- In the recent past, however, the economy has slowed down. Data for 2011 do not seem to suggest that the economy has started growing again.
What are the 3 reasons for the recent slow down in the economy of the USA?
- The price of oil reached a historic hight in 2008.
- House prices in the USA boomed after 2000.
- The US trade deficit(=handelstekort) has increased by about 1% of GDP in 1990 to 5% of GDP in 2008.
Herhaling 3 oorzaken achteruitgang Amerikaanse economie in plaatjes.Herhaling 3 oorzaken achteruitgang Amerikaanse economie in plaatjes.
Herhaling 3 oorzaken achteruitgang Amerikaanse economie in plaatjes.
18.104.22.168 The largest emerging economies
What are the largest emerging economies?Brazil, China, India and Russia (which are often called BRICs) have grown rapidly over the last decade and are now the largest economies outside of the group of advanced countries.
From what 2 things does the economic growth of the emerging economies come from?
- High accumulation of capital
- Very fast technological progress
22.214.171.124 Looking ahead
These are the questions to which you have been exposed in this chapter:
determines expansionsand recessions? Can monetarypolicy be used to prevent a recessionin the United States? How will the euro affect monetarypolicy in Europe?
- Why is
inflationso much lower today than it was in the past? Can Europe reduce its unemployment rate? Should the United States reduce its trade deficit?
- Why do growth rates
differso much across countries, even over long periods? Has the United States entered a New Economy, in which growth will be much higher in the future? Can other countries emulate(=wedijveren)China and grow at the same rate?
126.96.36.199 Gathering macro data
Gathering Macro Data
- International organisations, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), gather data for the richest countries.
- For countries that are not members of the OECD, one of the main sources of information is the International Financial Statistics (IFS), published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
- The IMF also publishes, twice a year, the World Economic Outlook, an assessment of macroeconomic developments in various parts of the world.
- In the United States, an extremely good annual resource is the Economic Report of the President, prepared by the Council of Economic Advisors.
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