# Summary Materials Science and Engineering

ISBN-10 1118319222 ISBN-13 9781118319222
427 Flashcards & Notes
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## Summary - Materials Science and Engineering

• wat zijn deze materials
dat zijn poepjes
• ## 3.1 Introduction

• What is discussed in chapter 3?
In chapter 3 is the structure of materials discussed. There will be a focus on crystalline structures.
• ## 3.2 Fundamental Concepts

• What is a crystalline material?
A crystalline material is a material in which the atoms are arranged in a periodic manner over large atomic distances.
• What is a crystal structure?
A crystal structure is the way in which particles are spatially arranged.
• What is the atomic hard-sphere model?
In the atomic hard-sphere model, atoms are represented as solid spheres. In this model nearest-neighbor atoms touch each other.
• What does the term lattice mean in context of crystal structures?
Here lattice means a three-dimensional array of points coinciding with atom position.
• ## 3.3 Unit Cells

• Why is it convenient to use unit cells?
Since atoms occur in a repetitive array in crystal structures, it is possible to subdivide the structure, resulting in a parallelepiped.
• ## 3.4 Crystal Systems

• What are the seven crystal systems?
1. Cubic
2. Hexagonal
3. Tetragonal
4. Rhomboheral (trigonal)
5. Orthorhombic
6. Monoclinic
7. Triclinic
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Cubic crystal system?
Axial relationship: a = b = c
Interaxial angles: α = β = γ = 90°
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Hexagonal crystal system?
Axial relationship: a = b ≠ c
Interaxial angles: α = β = 90° ,γ = 120°
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Tetragonal crystal system?
Axial relationship: a = b ≠ c
Interaxial angles: α = β = γ = 90°
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Rhombohedral (Trigonal) crystal system?
Axial relationship: a = b = c
Interaxial angles: α = β = γ ≠ 90°
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Orthohombic crystal system?
Axial relationship: a ≠ b ≠ c
Interaxial angles: α = β = γ = 90°
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Monoclinic crystal system?
Axial relationship: a ≠ b ≠ c
Interaxial angles: α = γ = 90° ≠ β
• What are the axial relationships and interaxial angles of the Triclinic crystal system?
Axial relationship: a ≠ b ≠ c
Interaxial angles: α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90°
• ## 3.5 Point Coordinates

• How are the point coordinate indices named and calculated?
q, r and s
qa = lattice position referenced to the x axis
rb = lattice position referenced to the y axis
sc = lattice position referenced to the z axis
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Equations used in composite calculations
units used
Describe the spinning process.
Molten polymer is forced trough a spinneret, which contains numerous small holes. The fibers created this way are rapidly cooled. This is called melt spinning.
What is the process called by which fibers are formed from bulk polymer materials?
Spinning.
How does casting polymers work?
A molten plastic material is poured into a mold and allowed to solidify.
How does blow molding work?
The formation of plastic containers is similar to the blow molding of glass bottles.
How does extrusion work?
Extrusion for polymers is similar to extrusion of metals. A viscous thermoplast is forced trough an open-end die orifice.
How does injection molding work?
Polymer pellets are fed into the cylinder and pushed in a heating chamber by a ram.
After melting the polymer is forced trough a nozzle into the mold cavity also by force of the same ram.
What is transfer molding?
In transfer molding the polymer is heated in the transfer chamber and injected under pressure in the mold chamber.
How does compression molding work?
The polymer/additive mix is placed into one half of a mold. The mold pieces are heated and when the mold is closed both heat and pressure are applied.
What different molding techniques are there?
- compression
- transfer
- blow
- injection
- extrusion