Summary Mens en dierkunde II

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Summary 1:

  • Mens en dierkunde II
  • Wageningen
  • or
  • 2010

Summary - Mens en dierkunde II

  • 1.1 Hoorcollege 17

  • Zenuwstelsel

  • Hersenen
    Linkerbeen wel bewegen, maar niet voelen, oorzaak: schade rechter frontale cortexlob
  • Telencephalon
  • Lateralisatie van functies:
    -Sleutel in rechterhand, dan gewoon benoemen en gebruiken. Want gekoppeld aan linker hemisfeer.
    Corpus callosum geen invloed, want is voor de verbindingen tussen linker en rechter hemisfeer

    -Linker hemisfeer voor taal en communicatie
  • Gedrag
  • 1.2 Hoorcollege 18

  • Hersenen:
    • Grijze stof (buiten): perikarya van neuronen
    • Witte stof (binnen): uitlopers (met myeline) en glia
  • Leasie corpus callosum.
    Rechter hand sleutel: voorwerp benoemen en gebruiken
  • Neuronen
  • -Tonische receptor (pijn)
    -Fasische receptor (reuk, tast)
    Tonische receptor: toename amplitude
  • Type sensoren in de huid: mechano (druk), thermo (warm/ koud), noci (pijn)
  • Laterale inhibitie: verhogende constratering en overlappende receptieve velden
    Receptieve velden voor auditieve systeem, tastsysteem en visuele systeem
  • Reflexboog heeft perifere ZS nodig
  • Geluid
    Geluid = drukgolven
    Geluidsrichting bepalen door: tijdsverschil en frequentieverschil tussen linker en rechter oor
    Docent beter hoorbaar met hoog irritant geluid
  • Oog
    Licht= elektro magnetische golven
    Fovea om vnl. kleur en scherp te zien. Bij schade, gezichtsverlies
    Vnl. kegeltjes en geen staafjes (licht-donker) in fovea

    PZS inactief: platte lens = veraf zien
    PZS actief: bolle lens = dichtbij zien

    Iris:
    -Circulaire spieren voor pupil vernauwing
    -Radiale spieren voor pupil verwijding

    Donker Na+ in en Ca2+ in
    Licht Na+ niet, Ca2+ niet
  • 2.1 Hoorcollege 19

  • Parasympaticus: rusten en verteren
    Sympaticus: vlieg of vecht
  • CZS en PZS opbouw:
    CZS output naar PZS = efferent

    Efferent opsplitsen in somatisch en autonoom
    -Somatisch (skelet)

    Autonoom opsplitsen in sympatisch en parasympatisch
    -Sympatisch (hartspieren/ gladde spieren/ klieren)
    -Parasympatisch (Enterische ZS > GIT)
    Indirecte innervatie (2 neuronen)
    Preganglionair vanuit CZS
    Postganglionair vanuit PZS

  • Sympaticus:
    • Korte preganglionaire neuronen
    • Lange postganglionaire neuronen
    • Ganglionen aan elkaar gelinked in een zijstreng
  • Parasympaticus:
    • Lange pre
    • Korte post
    • n. vagus (X), de zwervende zenuw. Ontspringt in verlengde merg
    • Postgang. gebruik ACh als neurontransmitter alleen in parasympaticus en niet sympaticus
    • ACh als post. bij alleen para. Bij pre. allebei
      Post. bij sym is NE
  • Autonoom
    Hart:
    SZS hartslag omhoog
    PZS hartslag omlaag

    Lever:
    SZS glycogenolyse en gluconeogenese omhoog
    GEEN PZS effecten

    Darmen:
    SZS motiliteit en vertering omlaag
    PZS motiliteit en vertering omhoog

    Wit vetweefsel:
    SZS lipolyse omhoog
    GEEN PZS effecten

  • Motor unit= motorneuron + geinnerveerde spiervezel
    • 1 motorneuron innerveert meerdere spiervezels
    • 1 spiervezel wordt door 1 motorneuron geinnerveert
    Motorunit bestaat uit spiercellen en wordt door 1 motorneuron geinnerveerd
  • Resumerend

  • 2.2 Hoorcollege 20

  • Autonoom/ visceraal: invloed op gladde spieren en hartspieren (dwarsgestreept)
    Somatisch: invloed op skeletspieren (dwarsgestreept)
    -Postcraniaal (axiale en appendiculaire spieren)
    -Craniaal (oogspieren en branchiale spieren)
  • Energiekosten:
    Zwemmen het meest energie efficiënt en rennen het minste!
    Ondanks dat vliegen het meeste energie verbruikt
  • Spiercel
  • Bij contractie verkorten: I en H banden
    Myosine en actine veroorzaken contractie

    Myosinefilament = de H-band
  • Spiervezeltypen
  • Piramide vs. extra-piramidale banen:
    Als je op de fiets zit en je bent aan het smsen, dan maak je gebruik van beide banen voor het fietsen
  • Gliacellen functie: transport voeding voor neuronen!
  • Larynx van oorsprong: viscerocraniaal
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Summary 2:

  • Mens en dierkunde II
  • Wageningen
  • or
  • 2013

Summary - Mens en dierkunde II

  • 1.1 Zoo Chptr 33: Nervous coordination

  • Difference nervous system vertebrate and bilateral invertebrates?

    The nervous system of the vertebrates is hollow, dorsal and terminates anteriorly in a brain. Invertebrates have a solid nerve cord ventral to their alimentary canal (gut).

  • What is encephalization?

    The evolutionary process of the elaboration of size, configuration and functional capacity of the brain.

  • Describe the human spinal cord.

    Segmental nerves, 31 pairs, separated into dorsal sensory roots and ventral morot roots. Sensory nerve cell bodies are gathered together into dorsal root (spinal) ganglia. Both dorsal and ventral roots meet beyond the spinal cord to form a mixed spinal nerve.

    The spinal cord encloses the spinal canal and all is wrapped in three layers of meninges. The two zones are the inner grey matter (containing cell bodies of motor neurons and interconnecting interneurons) and the outer white matter (containing bundels of axons and dendrites).

  • What is a reflex arc?

    A unit of neural operation, usually consistant of 1) a receptor, 2) an afferent (or sensory neuron that carries signals towards the CNS), 3) the CNS, 4) an efferent (or motor neuron that carries the signals from the CNS and makes a synaptic connection with the interuneuron), 5) an effector (muscles, glands, cells..).

  • What is a reflex act?

    A response to a stimulus ating over a reflex arc(s) (involuntary).

  • What are the three priciplal divisions of the early vertebrate brain?

    prosencephalon (forbrain - smell), mesencephalon (midbrain - vision) and the rhombencephalon (hindbrain - hearing and balance)

  • What parts are located in the hindbrain and what do they do?

    The medulla oblongata, together with the last part of the midbrain makes up the brainstem controlling vital and largely subconcious activities (heartbeat, respiration, vascular tone, gastric secretions..).

     

    The pons, contains a thick bundle of fibers that carry impulses from one side of the cerebellum to the other and connects the cerebellum and medulla to other parts of the brain.

     

    The cerebellum, dorsal to the medulla, controlls equilibrium, posture, and movement. It does not initiate movement but operates as a precision error-control center.

  • What is the midbrain responsable for and consist out of? Changed much over time?

    Consists of the tectum (including the optic nuclei), which contains nuclei that serve as centers for visual and auditory rflexes. Changed in function not in shape.

  • What centers are found in the forbrain and where are they located?

    The most posterior elements are the hypothalamus and the thalamus. The anterior portion of the forbrain (cerebrum) can be divided into the paleocortex (limbic system including the hippocampus) and the neocortex (cerebralcortex).

  • What do the thalamus and hypothalamus do?

    Thalamus - relay station that analyzes and passes sensory information to higher brain centers.

    Hypothalamus - homeostasis regulating centers. Also produces neurohormones and regulates reproduction and sexual behaviour and participates in emotional behaviour.

  • What do the neocortex and paleocortex regulate?

    The paleocortex better known as the limbic system mediates several species specific behaviours that relate to sex and feeding (rhinencephalon/nose brain). The hippocampus related to learning and memory.

    The neocortex/cerebralcortex regulates almost all intergrative activities and includes discrete moror and sensory areas (muscle movement and pressure, pain..). Vision, smell, hearing and speech. Association areas are also found, concerned with memory, judgement, reasoning..

  • What is the difference between the left and right side of the brain and how are they connected with eachother?

    Connected by the corpus callosum, the left is responsable for language development, maths, learning and sequential thought processes and the right side is responsable for spatial, musical, artistic, intuitive and perceptual activities

  • 1.2 Chptr 7: Mechanism of Behaviour

  • What is the nerve net and how does it work?

    A net of nerves that are nonpolarized and conduct impulses in all directions. There is also no centralized processing of information, however simpel behaviours are still observed amoung the Cnidaria (sea anemones, hydra and jellyfish).

    Peristaltic contraction in the gut wall of vertabrates is a nerve net. (& starfish back pincers)

  • What is the  radially symmetrical nervous system?

    The Echinodermata (starfish, sea urchin..) have a radially symmetrical nervous system. The nervous ring centered in the body leads out into nerve tracts extending into each arm. coodinated movements are partially controlled by impulses that travel through sensory neurons and interneurons, through the central ring, to motor neurons. Specialized types of receptors are found for receiving contact, taste, and general chemical signals.

  • What are bilaterally symmetrical nervous systems?

    Found in animals with directional movement (worms, molluscs, arthropods (insects and crustaceans), and chordates. Associated with the evolution of a distinct head (cephalization). These animals became more specialized for movement, giving the ventral part of the body the side that was used for moving.

  • What are three characteristics of vertebrates due to the development of the vertebrate nervous system?

    - Complexity of behaviour patterns and the general flexibility of behavioural responses are greater.

    - Vertebrate responses are generally faster due to structure.

    - Greater capacity of information storage.

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