Summary Motor learning and performance : a situation-based learning approach

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ISBN-10 073606964X ISBN-13 9780736069649
215 Flashcards & Notes
2 Students
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This is the summary of the book "Motor learning and performance : a situation-based learning approach". The author(s) of the book is/are Richard A Schmidt, Craig A Wrisberg. The ISBN of the book is 9780736069649 or 073606964X. This summary is written by students who study efficient with the Study Tool of Study Smart With Chris.

Summary - Motor learning and performance : a situation-based learning approach

  • 1 Chapter 1, getting started

  • define motor skill

     

    a skill for which the primary determinant of success is the quality of the movement that the performer produces.

     

  • define cognitive skill

     

    a skill for which the primary determinant of success is the quality of the performer’s decisions regarding what to do.

     

  • define open skill

     

    = a skill performed in an environment that is unpredictable or in motion and that requires performers to adapt their movements in response to dynamic properties of the environment.

     

  • define closed skill

     

    a skill performed in an environment that is unpredictable or stationary and that allows performers tot plan their movements in advance.

     

  • motor performance

     

    the observable production of a voluntary action, or a motor skill. The level of a person’s performance is susceptible to fluctuations in temporary factors such as motivation, arousal, fatigue, and physical condition.

     

  • motor learning

     

    the changes, associated with practice or experience, in internal processes that determine a person’s capability for producing a motor skill.

     

  • discrete skills

     

    a skill or task that is organized in such a way that the action is usually brief and has a well-defined beginning and end.

     

  • serial skills

     

    a type of skill organization that is characterized by several discrete actions connected together in a sequence, often with the order of the actions being crucial to performance success.

     

  • continuous skills

     

    a skill organized in such a way that the action unfolds without a recognizable beginning and end in an ongoing and often repetitive fashion.

  • maximum certainly of goal achievement
    a person is able to meet the performance goal, or end result, with maximum certainly
  • minimum energy expenditure
    skilled performers are able to organize their actions in a way that reduces the mental demands of the task. like a skilled wrestler who saves strength for the last few minutes
  • minimum movement time
    achieving the goal in the shortest time possible/ like sprinters in a track or swimming
  • situation-based approach to motor performance and learning
    an approach to understand motor performance and learning that emphasizes the situation in which performance and learning take place

    WHO (is the learner
    What (is the task
    Where (will performance take place
  • 2 sensory contributions to skilled performance

  • closed-loop control

     

    a type of control that involves the use of feedback and the activity of error detection and correction processes to maintain the desired state: used by people to control slow, deliberate movements

  • effector

    the component of a control system that carries out  the desired action; for example, the arm is usually the effector that carriese out the action of throwing a ball.

  • Golgi tendon organs

    proprioceptive sense organs located at the junction of muscles and tendons that signal information about force in the muscles.

  • muscle spindles

    sensory receptors located in the muscles that provide the nervous system with information about changes in muscle length.

  • exteroception

    sensory information that comes primarily from sources outside the person’s body, primarily vision and smell

  • proprioception

    sensory information that comes primarily from sources in the muscles and joints and from bodily movements.

  • interoception

    sensory information arising from within the body, such as hunger and thirst.

  • vestibulair apparatus

    proprioceptive sense organs located in the inner ear that provide information about posture, balance, and movements of the head.

  • cutaneous receptors

    proprioceptive sense organs located in most skin areas that signal information about pressure, temperature, and touch.

  • Hick's law

    law describing the stable relationship that exists between the number of stimulus-response alternatives and choice reaction time; specifically, as the logarithm of the number of stimulus-response pairs increases, choice reaction time increases linearly

  • M1 response

    the monosynaptic stretch refles, with a latency of 30-50 ms.

  • M2 response

    the polysynaptic, functional stretch reflex, with a latency of 50-80 ms (long loop reflex)

  • M3 response

    the voluntary reactiontime response, with a latency of 120- 180 ms.

  • input
    the information that people receive for processing
  • output
    the motor behavior or action produced as a result of information processing
  • stimulus identification (perception)
    the input is detected and identified
  • Response selection (decision)
    making a decision how to respond
  • response programming (action)
    to choose and prepare a particular action
  • reaction time (RT)
    the interval of time that elapses from the sudden presentation of a stimulus to the beginning of a person's response
  • choice RT
    the interval of time that elapses between the presentation of one of several possible stimuli and the beginning of one of serveral possible responses
  • factor that influences reaction time and decision making
    number of stimulus-response alternatives
    practice
    stimulus-response  compatibility
  • stimulus-response compatibility
    the degree to which the relationship between a stimulus and a associated response is natural
  • Hick's law
    a law of human performance stating that RT will increase logarithmically as the number of stimulus-response choices increases
  • spatial anticipation
    what is going to happen before the signal is presented
  • temporal anticipation
    when a signal to respond is going to happen or predicting the time course of a sequence of events
  • arousal
    the level of activation of the CNS, varies from extremely low levels during sleep to extremely high levels during intense physical and/or mental activity
  • anxiety
    a person's uneasiness or distress about furture uncertainies
    the way the person interprets a particular situation and the resulting emotions associated with that interpretation
  • inverted U-principle
    relationship between arousal level and performance
    as arousal level increases, performance improves, but only to a point. if arousal continuous to increase, performance begins to be degrated
  • perceptual narrowing
     the narrowing of attentional focus that occurs a person's arousal level increases
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distinct feedback
feedback that presents each performance seperately (given after each trial)
delayed feedback
delayed in time after relevant action
average/summary feedback
information presented after a series of movements that presents a summary  of those performances
immediate feedback
presented immediately after relevant action
terminal feedback
presented after the movement
concurred feedback
presented during movement
characteristics of M1 response
sensory; muscle length and tension
involuntary-nonconscious- automatic
no choices, not flexible
effect of M1 response
increasing contraction: stiffness
route M1 response
rmuscle spindle-spinal cord-single connection-directly back to same spindle
goal of M1
remaining actual posture